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GoRiN No Sho 

A Book OF Five Rings 

Written by Miyamoto IVIusashi 

Translated by Victor Harris 

Translator's Introduction 


Miyamoto Musashi was born in 1584, in a Japan struggling to recover from more than four 
centuries of internal strife. The traditional rule of the emperors had been overthrown in the 
twelfth century, and although each succesive emperor remained the figurehead of Japan, 
his powers were very much reduced. Since that time, Japan had seen almost continuous 
civil war between the provincial lords, warrior monks and brigands, all fighting each other 
for land and power. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the lords, called daimyo, built 
huge stone castles to protect themselves and their lands and castle towns outside the 
walls began to grow up. These wars naturally restricted the growth of trade and 
impoverished the whole country. 

In 1573, however, one man, Oda Nobunaga, came to the fore in Japan. He 
became Shogun, or military dictator, and for nine years succeeded in gaining control of 
almost the whole of the country. When Nobunaga was assassinated in 1582, a commoner 
took over the government. Toyotomi Hideyoshi continued the work of unifying Japan 
which Nobunaga had begun, ruthlessly putting down any traces of insurrection. He 
revived the old gulf between the warriors of Japan— the samurai— and the commoners by 
introducing restrictions on the wearing of swords. "Hideyoshi's sword-hunt", as it was 
known, meant that only samurai were allowed to wear two swords; the short one which 
everyone could wear and the long one which distinguished the samurai from the rest of 
the population. 

Although Hideyoshi did much to settle Japan and increase trade with the outside 
world, by the time of his death in 1598 internal disturbances still had not been completely 
eliminated. The real isolation and unification of Japan began with the inauguration of the 
great Togugawa rule. In 1603 Tokugawa leyasu, a former associate of both Hideyoshi and 
Nobunaga, formally became Shogun of Japan, after defeating Hideyoshi's son Hideyori at 
the battle of Seki ga Hara. 

leyasu established his government at Edo, present-day Tokyo, where he had a 
huge castle. His was a stable, peaceful government beginning a period of Japanese 
history which was to last until the Imperial Restoration of 1868, for although leyasu himself 
died in 1616 members of his family succeeded each other and the title Shogun became 
virtually an hereditary one for the Tokugawas. 

leyasu was determined to ensure his and his family's dictatorship. To this end, he 
paid lip-service to the emperor in Kyoto, who remained the titular head of Japan, while 
curtailing his duties and involvement in the government. The real threat to leyasu's 
position could only come from the lords, and he effectively decreased their opportunities 
for revolt by devising schemes whereby all lords had to live in Edo for alternate years and 
by placing great restrictions on travelling. He allotted land in exchange for oaths of 

allegiance, and gave the provincial castles around Edo to members of his own family. He 
also employed a network of secret police and assassins. 

The Tokugawa period marks a great change in the social history of Japan. The 
Bureaucracy of the Tokugawas was all-pervading. Not only were education, law, 
government and class controlled, but even the costume and behavior of each class. The 
traditional class consciousness of Japan hardened into a rigid class structure. There were 
basically four classes of person: samurai, farmers, artisans and merchants. The samurai 
were the highest — in esteem if not in wealth — and included the lords, senior government 
officials, warriors, and minor officials and foot soldiers. Next in the hierarchy came the 
farmers, not because they were well thought of but because they provided the essential 
rice crops. Their lot was a rather unhappy one, as they were forced to give most of their 
crops to the lords and were not allowed to leave their farms. Then came the artisans and 
craftsmen, and last of all the merchants, who, though looked down upon, eventually rose 
to prominence because of the vast wealth they accumulated. Few people were outside 
this rigid hierarchy. 

Musashi belonged to the samurai class. We find the origins of the samurai class in 
the Kondei ("Stalwart Youth") system established in 792 AD, whereby the Japanese 
army — which had until then consisted mainly of spear-wielding foot soldiers — was revived 
by stiffening the ranks with permanent training officers recruited from among the young 
sons of the high families. These officers were mounted, wore armour, and used the bow 
and sword. In 782 the emperor Kammu started building Kyoto, and in Kyoto he built a 
training hall which exists to this day called the Butokuden, meaning "Hall of the virtues of 
war". Within a few years of this revival the fierce Ainu, the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan 
who had until then confounded the army's attempt to move them from their wild lodgings, 
were driven far off to the northern island, Hokkaido. 

When the great provincial armies were gradually disbanded under Hideyoshi and 
leyasu, many out-of-work samurai roamed the country redundant in an era of peace. 
Musashi was one such samurai, a "renin" or "wave man". There were still samurai 
retainers to the Tokugawas and provincial lords, but their numbers were few. The hordes 
of redundant samurai found themselves living in a society which was completely based on 
the old chivalry, but at the same time they were apart from a society in which there was no 
place for men at arms. They became an inverted class, keeping the old chivalry alive by 
devotion to military arts with the fervour only Japanese possess. This was the time of the 
flowering in Kendo. 

Kendo, the Way of the sword, had always been synonymous with nobility in Japan. 
Since the founding of the samurai class in the eighth century, the military arts had become 
the highest form of study, inspired by the teachings of Zen and the feeling of Shinto. 
Schools of Kendo born in the early Muromachi period — approximately 1390 to 
1600— were continued through the upheavals of the formation of the peaceful Tokugawa 
Shogunate, and survive to this day. The education of the sons of the Tokugawa Shoguns 
was by means of schooling in the Chinese classics and fencing exercises. Where a 
Westener might say "The pen is mightier than the sword", the Japanese would say "Bunbu 
Itchi", or "Pen and sword in accord". Today, prominent businessmen and political figures 
in Japan still practise the old traditions of Kendo schools, preserving the forms of several 
hundred years ago. 

To sum up, Musashi was a renin at a time when the samurai were formally 
considered to be the elite, but actually had no means of livelihood unless they owned 
lands and castles. Many renin put up their swords and became artisans, but others, like 
Musashi, pursued the ideal of the warrior searching for enlightenment through the perilous 
paths of Kendo. Duels of revenge and tests of skill were commonplace, and fencing 
schools multiplied. Two schools especially, the Itto school and the Yagyu school, were 

sponsored by the Tokugawas. The Itto school provided an unbroken line of Kendo 
teachers, and the Yagyu school eventually became the secret police of the Tokugawa 


Traditionally, the fencing halls of Japan, called Dojo, were associated with shrines and 
temples, but during Musashi's lifetime numerous schools sprang up in the new castle 
towns. Each daimyo or lord, sponsored a Kendo school, where his retainers could be 
trained and his sons educated. The hope of every renin was that he would defeat the 
students and master of a Dojo in combat, thus increasing his fame and bringing his name 
to the ears of one who might employ him. 

The samurai wore two swords thrust through the belt with the cutting edge 
uppermost. The longer sword was carried out of doors only, the shorter sword was worn 
at all times. For training, wooden swords and bamboo swords were often used. Duelling 
and other tests of arms were common, with both real and practice swords. These took 
place in fencing halls and before shrines, in the streets and within castle walls. Duels were 
fought to the death or until one of the contestants was disabled, but a few generations 
after Musashi's time the "shinai", a pliable bamboo sword, and later padded fencing 
armour, came to be widely used, so the chances of injury were greatly reduced. The 
samurai studied with all kinds of weapons: halberds, sticks, swords, chain and sickle, and 
others. Many schools using such weapons survive in traditional form in Japan today. 

To train in Kendo one must subjugate the self, bear the pain of gruelling practise, 
and cultivate a level mind in the face of peril. But the Way of the sword means not only 
fencing training but also living by the code of honour of the samurai elite. Warfare was the 
spirit of the samurai's everyday life, and he could face death as if it were a domestic 
routine. The meaning of life and death by the sword was mirrored in the everyday conduct 
of the feudal Japanese, and he who realised the resolute acceptance of death at any 
moment in his everyday life was a master of the sword. It is in order to attain such an 
understanding that later men have followed the ancient traditions of the sword-fencing 
styles, and even today give up their lives for Kendo practise. 


The Way of the sword is the moral teaching of the samurai, fostered by the Confucianist 
philosophy which shaped the Tokugawa system, together with the native Shinto religion of 
Japan. The warrior courts of Japan from the Kamakura period to the Muromachi period 
encouraged the austere Zen study among the samurai, and Zen went hand in hand with 
the arts of war. In Zen there are no elaborations, it aims directly at the true nature of 
things. There are no ceremonies, no teachings, the prize of Zen is essentially personal. 
Enlightenment in Zen does not mean a change in behaviour, but realisation of the nature 
of ordinary life. The end point is the beginning, and the great virtue is simplicity. The 
secret teaching of the Itto Ryu school of Kendo, Kiriotoshi, is the first technique of some 
hundred or so. The teaching is "Ai Uchi", meaning to cut the opponent just as he cuts you. 
This is the ultimate timing ... it is lack of anger. It means to treat your enemy as an 
honoured guest. It also means to abandon your life or throw away fear. 

The first technique is the last, the beginner and the master behave in the same 
way. Knowledge is a full circle. The first of Musashi's chapter headings is Ground, for the 
basis of Kendo and Zen, and the last book is Void, for that understanding which can only 

be expressed as nothingness. The teachings of Kendo are like the fierce verbal forays to 
which the Zen student is subjected. Assailed with doubts and misery, his mind and spirit in 
a whirl, the student is gradually guided to realisation and understanding by his teacher. 
The Kendo student practices furiously, thousands of cuts morning and night, learning 
fierce techniques of horrible war, until eventually sword becomes "no sword", intention 
becomes "no intention", a spontaneous knowledge of every situation. The first elementary 
teaching becomes the highest knowledge, and the master still continues to practise this 
simple training, his every prayer. 


Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara No Genshin, or as he is commonly known Miyamoto 
Musashi, was born in the village called Miyamoto in the province Mimasaka in 1584. 
"Musashi" is the name of an area southwest of Tokyo, and the appellation "No Kami" 
means noble person of the area, while "Fujiwara" is the name of the noble family foremost 
in Japan over a thousand years ago. 

Musashi's ancestors were a branch of the powerful Harima clan in Kyushu, the 
southern island of Japan. Hirada Shokan, his grandfather, was a retainer of Shinmen Iga 
No Kami Sudeshige, the lord of Takeyama castle, Hirada Shokan was highly thought of by 
his lord and eventually married his lord's daughter. 

When Musashi was seven, his father, Munisai, either died or abondoned the child. 
As his mother had died, Ben No Suke, as Musashi was known during his childhood, was 
left in the care of an uncle on his mother's side, a priest. So we find Musashi an orphan 
during Hideyoshi's campaigns of unification, son of a samurai in a violent unhappy land. 
He was a boisterous youth, strong-willed and physically large for his age. Whether he was 
urged to pursue Kendo by his uncle, or whether his aggressive nature led him to it, we do 
not know, but it is recorded that he slew a man in single combat when he was just 
thirteen. The opponent was Arima Kihei, a samurai of the Shinto Ryu school of military 
arts, skilled with sword and spear. The boy threw the man to the ground, and beat him 
about the head with a stick when he tried to rise. Kihei died vomiting blood. 

Musashi's next contest was when he was sixteen, when he defeated Tadashima 
Akiyama. About this time, he left home to embark on the "Warrior Pilgrimage" which saw 
him victor in scores of contests and which took him to war six times, until he finally settled 
down at the age of fifty, having reached the end of his search for reason. There must have 
been many renin traveling the country on similar expeditions, some alone like Musashi 
and some enjoying sponsorship, though not on the scale of the pilgrimage of the famous 
swordsman Tsukahara Bokuden who had traveled with a retinue of over one hundred men 
in the previous century. 

This part of Musashi's life was spent living apart from society while he devoted 
himself with a ferocious single-mindedness to the search for enlightenment by the Way of 
the sword. Concerned only with perfecting his skill, he lived as men need not live, 
wandering over Japan soaked by the cold winds of winter, not dressing his hair, not taking 
a wife, nor following any profession save his study. It is said he never entered a bathtub 
lest he was caught unawares without a weapon, and that his appearance was uncouth 
and wretched. 

In the battle which resulted in leyasu succeeding Hideyoshi as Shogun of Japan, 
Seki ga Hara, Musashi joined the ranks of the Ashikaga army to fight against leyasu. He 
survived the terrible three days during which seventy thousand people died, and also 
survived the hunting down and massacre of the vanquished army 

He went up to Kyoto, the capital, when he was twenty-one. This was the scene of 

his vendetta against the Yoshioka family. The Yoshiokas had been fencing instructors to 
the Ashikaga house for generations. Later forbidden to teach Kendo by lord Tokugawa, 
the family became dyers, and are dyers today. Munisai, Musashi's father, had been 
invited to Kyoto some years before by the Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaka. Munisai was a 
competant swordsman, and an expert with the "jitte", a kind of iron truncheon with a 
tongue for catching sword blades. The story has it that Munisai fought three of the 
Yoshiokas, winning two of the duels, and perhaps this has some bearing on Musashi's 
behavior towards the family. 

Yoshioka Seijiro, the head of the family, was the first to fight Musashi, on the moor 
outside the city. Seijiro was armed with a real sword, and Musashi with a wooden sword. 
Musashi laid Seijiro out with a fierce attack and beat him savagely as he lay on the 
ground. The retainers carried their lord home on a rain-shutter, where for shame he cut off 
his samurai topknot. 

Musashi lingered on in the capital, and his continued presence further irked the 
Yoshiokas. The second brother, Denshichiro, applied to Musashi for a duel. As a military 
ploy, Musashi arrived late on the appointed day, and seconds after the start of the fight he 
broke his opponent's skull with one blow of his wooden sword. Denshichiro was dead. The 
house issued yet another challenge with Hanshichiro, the young son of Seijiro, as 
champion. Hanshichiro was a mere boy, not yet in his teens. The contest was to be held 
by a pine tree adjacent to ricefields. Musashi arrived at the meeting place well before the 
appointed time and waited in hiding for his enemy to come. The child arrived dressed 
formally in war gear, with a party of well-armed retainers, determined to do away with 
Musashi. Musashi waited concealed in the shadows, and just as they were thinking that 
he had thought better of it and had decided to leave Kyoto, he suddenly appeared in the 
midst of them, and cut the boy down. Then, drawing both swords, he cut a path through 
them and made his escape. 

After that frightful episode Musashi wandered over Japan, becoming a legend in 
his own time. We find mention of his name and stories of his prowess in registers, dairies, 
on monuments, and in folk memory from Tokyo to Kyushu. He had more than sixty 
contests before he was twenty-nine, and won them all. The earliest account of his 
contests appears in Niten Ki, or "Two Heavens Chronicle", a record compiled by his pupils 
a generation after his death. 

In the year of the Yoshioka affair, 1605, he visited the temple Hozoin in the south 
of the capital. Here he had a contest with Oku Hozoin, the Nichiren sect pupil of the Zen 
priest Hoin Inei. The priest was a spearman, but no match for Musashi who defeated him 
twice with his short wooden sword. Musashi stayed at the temple for some time studying 
fighting techniques and enjoying talks with the priests. There is still today a traditional 
spear fighting form practised by the monks of Hozoin. It is interesting that in ancient times 
the word "Osho", which now means priest, used to mean "spear teacher". Hoin Inei was 
pupil to Izumi Musashi no Kami, a master of Shinto Kendo. The priest used spears with 
cross-shaped blades kept outside the temple under the eaves and used in fire fighting. 

When Musashi was in Iga province he met a skilled chain and sickle fighter named 
Shishido Baikin. As Shishido twirled his chain Musashi drew a dagger and pierced his 
breast, advancing to finish him off. The watching pupils attacked Musashi but he 
frightened them away in four directions. 

In Edo, a fighter named Muso Gonosuke visited Musashi requesting a duel. 
Musashi was cutting wood to make a bow, and granting Gonosuke's request stood up 
intending to use the slender wand he was cutting as a sword. Gonosuke made a fierce 
attack, but Musashi stepped straight in and banged him on the head. Gonosuke went 

Passing through Izumo province, Musashi visited lord Matsudaira and asked 

permission to fight with his strongest expert. There were many good strategists in Izumo. 
Permission was granted against a man who used an eight foot long hexagonal wooden 
pole. The contest was held in the lord's library garden. Musashi used two wooden swords. 
He chased the samurai up the two wooden steps of the library veranda, thrust at his face 
on the second step, and hit him on both his arms as he flinched away. To the surprise of 
the assembled retainers, lord Matsudaira asked Musashi to fight him. Musashi drove the 
lord up the library steps as before, and when he tried to make a resolute fencing attitude 
Musashi hit his sword with the "Fire and Stones Cut", breaking it in two. The lord bowed in 
defeat, and Musashi stayed for some time as his teacher. 

Musashi's most well-known duel was in the seventeenth year of Keicho, 1612, 
when he was in Ogura in Bunzen province. His opponent was Sasaki Kojiro, a young man 
who had developed a strong fencing technique known as Tsubame-gaeshi or "swallow 
counter", inspired by the motion of a swallow's tail in flight. Kojiro was retained by the lord 
of the province, Hosokawa Tadaoki. Musashi applied to Tadaoki for permission to fight 
Kojiro through the offices of one of the Hosokawa retainers who had been a pupil of 
Musashi's father, one Nagaoka Sato Okinaga. Permission was granted for the contest to 
be held at eight o'clock the next morning, and the place was to be an island some few 
miles from Ogura. That night Musashi left his lodging and moved to the house of 
Kobayashi Tare Zaemon. This inspired a rumour that awe of Kojiro's subtle technique had 
made Musashi run away afraid for his life. The next day at eight o'clock Musashi could not 
be woken until a prompter came from the officials assembled on the island. He got up, 
drank the water they brought to him to wash with, and went straight down to the shore. As 
Sato rowed across to the island Musashi fashioned a paper string to tie back the sleeves 
of his kimono, and cut a wooden sword from the spare oar. When he had done this he lay 
down to rest. 

The boat neared the place of combat and Kojiro and the waiting officials were 
astounded to see the strange figure of Musashi, with his unkempt hair tied up in a towel, 
leap from the boat brandishing the long wooden oar and rush through the waves up the 
beach towards his enemy. Kojiro drew his long sword, a fine blade by Nagamitsu of Bizen, 
and threw away his scabbard. "You have no more need of that" said Musashi as he 
rushed forward with his sword held to one side. Kojiro was provoked into making the first 
cut and Musashi dashed upward at his blade, bringing the oar down on Kojiro's head. As 
Kojiro fell, his sword, which had cut the towel from Musashi's head, cut across the hem of 
his divided skirt. Musashi noted Kojiro's condition and bowed to the astounded officials 
before running back to his boat. Some sources have it that after he killed Kojiro, Musashi 
threw down the oar and, nimbly leaping back several paces, drew both his swords and 
flourished them with a shout at his fallen enemy. 

It was about this time that Musashi stopped ever using real swords in duels. He 
was invincible, and from now on he devoted himself to the search for perfect 
understanding by way of Kendo. 

In 1614 and again in 1615 he took the opportunity of once more experiencing 
warfare and siege, leyasu laid siege to Osaka castle where the supporters of the 
Ashikaga family were gathered in insurrection. Musashi joined the Tokugawa forces in 
both winter and summer campaigns, now fighting against those he had fought for as a 
youth at Seki ga Hara. 

According to his own writing, he came to understand strategy when he was fifty or 
fifty-one in 1634. He and his adopted son lori, the waif whom he had met in Dewa 
province on his travels, settled in Ogura in this year. Musashi was never again to leave 
Kyushu island. The Hosokawa house had been entrusted with the command of the hot 
seat of Higo province, Kumamoto castle, and the new lord of Bunzen was an Ogasawara. 
lori found employment under Ogasawara Tadazane, and as a captain in Tadazane's army 

fought against the Christians in the Shimawara uprising of 1 638, when IVIusashi was about 
fifty-five. The lords of the southern provinces had always been antagonistic to the 
Tokugawas and were the instigators of intrigue with foreign powers and the Japanese 
Christians. Musashi was a member of the field staff at Shimawara where the Christians 
were massacred. After this, leyasu closed the ports of Japan to foreign intercourse, and 
they remained closed for over two hundred years. 

After six years in Ogura, Musashi was invited to stay with Churl, the Hosokawa 
lord of Kumamoto castle, as a guest. He stayed a few years with lord Churi and spent his 
time teaching and painting. In 1643, he retired to a life of seclusion in a cave called 
"Reigendo". Here he wrote Go Rin No Sho, addressed to his pupil Teruo Nobuyuki, a few 
weeks before his death on the nineteenth of May, 1645. 

Musashi is known to the Japanese as "Kensei", that is "Sword Saint". Go Rin No 
Sho heads every Kendo bibliography, being unique among books of martial art in that it 
deals with both the strategy of warfare and the methods of single combat in exactly the 
same way. The book is not a thesis on strategy, it is in Musashi's words "a guide for men 
who want to learn strategy" and, as a guide always leads, so the contents are always 
beyond the student's understanding. The more one reads the book the more one finds in 
its pages. It is Musashi's last will, the key to the path he trod. When, at twenty-eight or 
twenty-nine, he had become such a strong fighter, he did not settle down and build a 
school, replete with success, but became doubly engrossed with his study. In his last days 
even, he scorned the life of comfort with lord Hosokawa and lived two years alone in a 
mountain cave deep in contemplation. The behaviour of this cruel, headstrong man was 
evidently most humble and honest. 

Musashi wrote "When you have attained the Way of strategy there will be not one 
thing that you cannot understand" and "You will see the Way in everything". He did, in 
fact, become a master of arts and crafts. He produced masterpieces of ink painting, 
probably more highly valued by the Japanese than the ink paintings of any other. His 
works include cormorants, herons. Hotel the Shinto God, dragons, birds with flowers, bird 
in a dead tree, Daruma (Bodhidharma), and others. He was a fine calligrapher, evidenced 
by his piece "Senki" (Warspirit). There is a small wood sculpture of the Buddhist deity 
Fudo Myoo in private hands. A sculpture of Kwannon was lost recently. He made works in 
metal, and founded the school of sword guard makers who signed "Niten", after him (see 
below). He is said to have written poems and songs, but none of these survive. It is said 
also that he was commissioned by the Shogun lemitsu to paint the sunrise over Edo 

His paintings are sometimes impressed with his seal, "Musashi", or his nom de 
plume "Niten". Niten means "Two Heavens", said by some to allude to his fighting attitude 
with a sword in each hand held above his head. In some places he established schools 
known as "Niten ryu", and in other places called it "Enmei ryu" (clear circle). 

He wrote "Study the Ways of all professions". It is evident that he did just that. He 
sought out not only great swordsmen but also priests, strategists, artists and craftsmen, 
eager to broaden his knowledge. 

Musashi writes about the various aspects of Kendo in such a way that it is possible 
for the beginner to study at beginner's level, and for Kendo masters to study the same 
words on a higher level. This applies not just to military strategy, but to any situation 
where plans and tactics are used. Japanese businessmen have used Go Rin No Slio as a 
guide for business practice, making sales campaigns like military operations, using the 
same energetic methods. In the same way that Musashi seems to have been a horribly 
cruel man, yet was following logically an honest ideal, so successful business seems to 
most people to be without conscience. 

Musashi's life study is thus as relevant in the twentieth century as it was on the 

medieval battleground, and applies not just to the Japanese race but to all nations. I 
suppose you could sum up his inspiration as "humility and hard work". 


I have been many years training in the Way^ of strategy/ called Ni Ten Ichi Ryu, and now 
I think I will explain it in writing for the first time. It is now during the first ten days of the 
tenth month in the twentieth year of Kanei (1645). I have climbed mountain Iwato of Higo 
in Kyushu to pay homage to heaven," pray to Kwannon,"* and kneel before Buddha. I am a 
warrior of Harima province, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara No Geshin, age sixty 

From youth my heart has been inclined toward the Way of strategy. My first duel 
was when I was thirteen, I struck down a strategist of the Shinto school, one Arima Kihei.^ 
When I was sixteen I struck down an able strategist, Tadashima Akiyama. When I was 
twenty-one I went up to the capital and met all manner of strategists, never once failing to 
win in many contests. 

After that I went from province to province duelling with strategists of various 
schools, and not once failed to win even though I had as many as sixty encounters. This 
was between the ages of thirteen and twenty-eight or twenty-nine. 

When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. The previous victories were not 
due to my having mastered strategy. Perhaps it was natural ability, or the order of heaven, 
or that other schools' strategy was inferior. After that I studied morning and evening 
searching for the principle, and came to realise the Way of strategy when I was fifty. 

Since then I have lived without following any particular Way. Thus with the virtue of 
strategy I practise many arts and abilities— all things with no teacher.' To write this book I 
did not use the law of Buddha or the teachings of Confucius, neither old war chronicles 
nor books on martial tactics. I take up my brush to explain the true spirit' of this Ichi school 

1 l/l/ay: The Character for Way is read "Michi" in Japanese or "Do" in Chinese-based reading. It is equivalent to the 
Chinese "Tao" and means the whole life of the warrior, his devotion to the sword, his place in the Confucius-coloured 
bureaucracy of the Tokugawa system. It is the road of the cosmos, not just a set of ethics for the artist or priest to live by, 
but the divine footprints of God pointing the Way. 

2 Strategy: "Heiho" is a word of Chinese derivation meaning military strategy. "Hei" means soldier and "Ho" means 
method or form. 

3 Homage to heaven: "Ten" or heaven means the Shinto religion, Shinto — a word compounding the two characters 
"Kami" (God) and "Michi" (Way"-is the old religion of Japan. In Shinto there are many Holies, gods of steel and 
fermentation, place and industry, and so-on, and the first gods, ancestors to the Imperial line. 

'^ Kwannon: God(dess) of mercy in Buddhism. 

^ Arima Kihei: of the Shinto school. See note 15. 

^ All things with no teacher: There had been traditions instituted for the arts in the Muromachi period, system of grades 

and licenses and seniority, and these were perpetuated perhaps more rigidly under the Tokugawa bureaucracy. Musashi 

studied various arts in various schools, but when after his enlightenment he pursued his studies he had become separate 

from traditional guidance. He writes his final words in the book of the Void: "Then you will come to think of things in a 

wide sense, and taking the Void as the Way, you will see the Way as Void." 

' Spirit "Shin" or "Kokoro" has been translated "heart", "soul", or "spirit". It could be put as feeling, manner. It has always 

been said "The sword is the soul of the samurai." 

as it is mirrored in the Way of heaven and Kwannon. The time is the night of the tenth day 
of the tenth month, at the hour of the tiger*^ (3-5 a.m.) 

'The hour of the fi'ger: Years, months and hours were named after the ancient Chinese Zodiacal time system. 

TheGround Book 

Stategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must enact the craft, and troopers should 
know this Way. There is no warrior in the world today who really understands the Way of 

There are various Ways. There is the Way of Salvation by the law of Buddha, the 
Way of Confucius governing the Way of learning, the Way of healing as a doctor, as a 
poet teaching the Way of Waka,^ tea,'° archery," and many arts and skills. Each man 
practices as he feels inclined. 

It is said the warrior's is the twofold Way of pen and sword,' ^ and he should have a 
taste for both Ways. Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking 
assiduously to both divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of the warrior is 
resolute acceptance of death.'" Although not only warriors but priests, women, peasants 

5 Waka: The thirty-one syllable poem. The word means "Song of Japan" or "Song in Harmony". 

" Tea: Tea drinking is studied in schools, just like sword-fencing. It is basically a ritual, based on simple refined rules, 

between a few persons in a small room. 

1^ Archery: The bow was the main weapon of the samurai of the Nara and Heian periods, and was later superseded by 

the sword. Archery is practised as a ritual like tea and sword. Hachiman, the God of War, is often depicted as an archer, 

and the bow is frequently illustrated as part of the paraphernalia of the gods. 

12 Pen and sword: "Bunbu Itchi" or "Pen and sword in accord" is often presented in brushed calligraphy. Young men 
during the Tokugawa period were educated solely in writing the Chinese classics and exercising in swordplay. Pen and 
sword, in fact, filled the life of the Japanese nobility. 

13 Resolute acceptance of death: This idea can be summed up as the philosophy expounded in Ha Gakure or "Hidden 
Leaves", a book written in the seventeenth century by Yamamoto Tsunenori and a few other samurai of the province 
Nabeshima Han, present-day Saga. Under the Tokugawas, the enforced logic of the Confucius-influenced system 
ensured stability among the samurai, but it also meant the passing of certain aspects of Bushido. Discipline for both 
samurai and commoners became lax. Yamamoto Tsunenori had been counsellor to Mitsushige, lord of Nabeshima Han, 
for many years, and upon his lord's death he wanted to commit suicide with his family in the traditional manner. This kind 
of suicide was strictly prohibited by the new legislation, and, full of remorse, Yamamoto retired in sadness to the 
boundary of Nabeshima Han. Here he met others who had faced the same predicament, and together they wrote a 
lament of what they saw as the decadence of Bushido. Their criticism is a revealing comment on the changing face of 
Japan during Musashi's lifetime: "There is no way to describe what a warrior should do other than he should adhere to 
the Way of the warrior (Bushido). I find that all men are negligent of this. There are a few men who can quickly reply to 
the question "What is the Way of the Warrior?" This is because they do not know in their hearts. From this we can say 
they do not follow the Way of the warrior. By the Way of the warrior is meant death. The Way of the warrior is death. This 
means choosing death whenever there is a choice between life and death. It means nothing more than this. It means to 
see things through, being resolved. Sayings like "To die with your intention unrealized is to die uselessly", and so on, are 
from the weak Kyoto, Osaka Bushido. They are unresolved as to whether to keep to their original plan when faced with 
the choice of life and death. Every man wants to live. They theorize with staying alive in mind. "The man who lives on 
when he had failed in his intention is a coward" is a heartless definition. That to die having failed is to die uselessly is a 
mad point of view. This is not a shameful thing. It is the most important thing in the Way of the warrior. If you keep your 
spirit correct from morning to night, accustomed to the idea of death and resolved on death, and consider yourself as a 
dead body, thus becoming one with the Way of the warrior, you can pass through life with no possibility of failure and 

and lowlier folk have been known to die readily in the cause of duty or out of shame, this 
is a different thing. The warrior is different in that studying the Way of strategy is based on 
overcoming men. By victory gained in crossing swords with individuals, or enjoining battle 
with large numbers, we can attain power and fame for ourselves or for our lord.^^ This is 
the virtue of strategy. 

The Way of Strategy 

In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as "masters of strategy". 
Warriors must learn this Way. 

Recently there have been people getting on in the world as strategists, but they 
are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants of the Kashima Kantori shrines'" of the 
province Hitachi received instruction from the gods, and made schools based on this 
teaching, travelling from country to country instructing men. This is the recent meaning of 

In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven Arts as a 
beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as beneficial practice it was not limited to 
sword-fencing. The true value of sword-fencing cannot be seen within the confines of 
sword-fencing technique. 

If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell their own 
selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has become less than the flower. In this 
kind of Way of strategy, both those teaching and those learning the way are concerned 
with colouring and showing off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. 
They speak of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo".'" They are looking for profit. Someone once 
said "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true saying. 

perform your office properly. 

"The servant must think earnestly of the business of his employer. Such a fellow is a spendid retainer. In this house there 

have been generations of splendid gentlemen and we are deeply impressed by their warm kindness ... all our ancestors. 

This was simply abondoning body and soul for the sake of their lord. 

"Moreover, our house excels in wisdom and technical skill. What a joyful thing if this can be used to advantage. 

"Even an unadaptable man who is completely useless is a most trusted retainer if he does nothing more than think 

earnestly of his lord's welfare. To think only of the practical benefit of wisdom and technology is vulgar. 

"Some men are prone to having sudden inspirations. Some men do not quickly have good ideas but arrive at the answer 

by slow consideration. Well, if we investigate the heart of the matter, even though people's natural abilities differ, bearing 

in mind the Four Oaths, when your thinking rises above concern for your own welfare, wisdom which is independent of 

thought appears. Whoever thinks deeply on things, even though he may carefully consider the future, will usually think 

around the basis of his own welfare. By the result of such evil thinking he will only perform evil acts. It is very difficult for 

most silly fellows to rise above thinking of their own welfare. 

"So when you embark upon something, before you start, fix your intention on the Four Oaths and put selfishness behind 

you. Then you cannot fail. 

"The Four Oaths: Never be late with respect to the Way of the warrior. Be useful to the lord. Be respectful to your 

parents. Get beyond love and grief: exist for the good of man." 

^"^ Our lord: This refers to the daimyo, who retained numbers of samurai to fight for them (see previous note). 

^5 Kashima Kantori sfirines: The original schools of Kendo can be found in the traditions preserved in Shinto shrines. 

Many of the school ancestors are entombed in the Kanto area, not far from Tokyo, where the Kashima and Kantori 

shrines still stand. Arima Kihei, the samurai whom Musashi killed at the age of thirteen, was a fencer of the Shinto school 

associated with the shrines. The Yagyu school was derived from the Kashima style. Shinto was a religion of industry in 

everyday life, and the War Gods enshrined at Kashima and Kantori are still invoked today as part of the everyday 

practice of the Shinto school. 

15 Dojo: "Dojo" means "Way place", the room where something is studied. 

There are four Ways^^ in which men pass through life: as gentlemen, farmers, artisans 
and merchants. 

The way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments, he sees springs through to 
autumns with an eye on the changes of season. 

Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his ingredients and 
puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the merchant is always to live by taking 
profit. This is the Way of the merchant. 

Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of his Way. The Way of the 
warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gentleman dislikes strategy he will not 
appreciate the benefit of weaponry, so must he not have a little taste for this? 

Fourthly the Way of the artisan. The Way of the carpenter"^ is to become proficient 
in the use of his tools, first to lay his plans with a true measure and then perform his work 
according to plan. Thus he passes through life. These are the four Ways of the 
gentleman, the farmer, the artisan and the merchant. 

Comparing the Way of the Carpenter to Strategy 

The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses. Houses of the 
nobility, houses of warriors, the Four houses,'' ruin of houses, thriving of houses, the style 
of the house, the tradition of the house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses a 
master plan of the building, and the Way of strategy is similar in that there is a plan of 
campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder over this book. The teacher is as a 
needle, the disciple is as thread. You must practice constantly. 

Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural rules, and the rules 
of the country, and the rules of houses. This is the Way of the foreman. 

The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers and temples, 
and the plans of palaces, and must employ men to raise up houses. The Way of the 
foreman carpenter is the same as the Way of the commander of a warrior house.^" 

In the contruction of houses, choice of woods is made. Straight un-knotted timber 
of good appearance is used for the revealed pillars, straight timber with small defects is 
used for the inner pillars. Timber of the finest appearance, even if a little weak, is used for 
the thresholds, lintels, doors, and sliding doors,'' and so on. Good strong timber, though it 
be gnarled and knotted, can always be used discreetly in construction. Timber which is 
weak or knotted throughout should be used as scaffolding, and later for firewood. 

The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability. Floor layers, 
makers of sliding doors, thresholds and lintels, ceilings and so on. Those of poor ability lay 
the floor joist, and those of lesser ability carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. If 
the foreman knows and deploys his men well the finished work will be good. 

The foreman should take into account the abilities and limitations of his men, 
circulating among them and asking nothing unreasonable. He should know their morale 
and spirit, and encourage them when necessary. This is the same as the principle of 

^^ Four Ways: See Translator's Introduction for an explanation of the four classes in Japanese society. 

1' Carpenter. All buildings in Japan, except for the walls of the great castles which appeared a few generations before 

Musashi's birth, were wooden. "Carpenter" means architect and builder. 

13 Four Houses: There were four branches of the Fujiwara family, who dominated Japan in the Heian period. There are 

also four different schools of tea. 

2" Warrior house: The warrior families who had been in control of Japan for most of her history kept private armies, each 

with its own commander. 

21 Sliding doors: Japanese buildings made liberal use of sliding doors, detachable walls, and shutters made of wood 

which were put over door openings at night and in bad weather. 


The Way of Strategy 

Like a trooper, the carpenter sharpens his own tools.^^ He carries his equipment in his tool 
box, and works under the direction of his foreman. He makes columns and girders with an 
axe, shapes floorboards and shelves with a plane, cuts fine openwork and carvings 
accurately, giving as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. This is the craft of carpenters. 
When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands measures he can become a 

The carpenter's attainment is, having tools which will cut well, to make small 
shrines,^' writing shelves, tables, paper lanterns, chopping boards and pot-lids. These are 
the specialities of the carpenter. Things are similar for the trooper. You ought to think 
deeply about this. 

The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not warped, that the joints are 
not misaligned, and that the work is truly planed so that it meets well and is not merely 
finished in sections. This is essential. 

If you want to learn this Way, deeply consider the things written in this book one at 
a time. You must do sufficient research. 

Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy 

The Way is shown in five books^ ' concerning different aspects. These are Ground, 
Water, Fire, Tradition (Wind)," and Void.'' 

The body of the Way of strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school is explained 
in the Ground book. It is difficult to realise the true Way just through sword-fencing. Know 
the smallest things and the biggest things, the shallowest things and the deepest things. 
As if it were a straight road mapped out on the ground, the first book is called the Ground 

Second is the Water book. With water as the basis, the spirit becomes like water. 
Water adopts the shape of its receptacle, it is sometimes a trickle and sometimes a wild 
sea. Water has a clear blue colour. By the clarity, things of Ichi school are shown in this 

If you master the principles of sword-fencing, when you freely beat one man, you 
beat any man in the world. The spirit of defeating a man is the same for ten million men. 
The strategist makes small things into big things, like building a great Buddha from a one 
foot model. I cannot write in detail how this is done. The principle of strategy is having one 
thing, to know ten thousand things. Things of Ichi school are written in this the Water 

Third is the Fire book. This book is about fighting. The spirit of fire is fierce. 

22 Like a trooper, the carpenter sharpens his own tools: Sharpening and polishing the Japanese sword is today a worl< 
undertal<en only by a specialist, but perhaps the art was more widespread in the age of war. If a sword is imperfectly 
polished and the surface of the blade incorrectly shaped, even if it is a very sharp, fine weapon it will not cut at all well. 

23 Smaii shrines: Small shrines to the Shinto gods are found in every Japanese home. 

2'' Five bool(s: Go Rin No Sho means a book of five rings. The "Go Dai" (Five Greats) of Buddhism are the five elements 
which make up the cosmos: ground, water, fire, wind, void. The "Go Rin" (Five Rings) of Buddhism are the five parts of 
the human body: head, left and right elbows, and left and right knees. 

25 Wind: The Japanese character for "wind" also means "style". 

26 Void: The void, or Nothingness, is a Buddhist term for the illusionary nature of worldly things. 

whether the fire be small or big; and so it is with battles. The Way of battles is the same 
for man to man fights and for ten thousand a side battles. You must appreciate that spirit 
can become big or small. What is big is easy to perceive: what is small is difficult to 
perceive. In short, it is difficult for large numbers of men to change position, so their 
movements can be easily predicted. An individual can easily change his mind, so his 
movements are difficult to predict. You must appreciate this. The essence of this book is 
that you must train day and night in order to make quick decisions. In strategy it is 
necessary to treat training as a part of normal life with your spirit unchanging. Thus 
combat in battle is described in the Fire book. 

Fourthly the Wind book. This book is not concerned with my Ichi school but with 
other schools of strategy. By Wind I mean old traditions, present-day traditions, and family 
traditions of strategy. Thus I clearly explain the strategies of the world. This is tradition. It 
is difficult to know yourself if you do not know others. To all Ways there are side-tracks. If 
you study a Way daily, and your spirit diverges, you may think you are obeying a good 
way, but objectively it is not the true Way. If you are following the true Way and diverge a 
little, this will later become a large divergence. You must realise this. Other strategies 
have come to be thought of as mere sword-fencing, and it is not unreasonable that this 
should be so. The benefit of my strategy, although it includes sword-fencing, lies in a 
separate principle. I have explained what is commonly meant by strategy in other schools 
in the Tradition (Wind) book. 

Fifthly, the book of the Void. By Void I mean that which has no beginning and no 
end. Attaining this principle means not attaining the principle. The Way of strategy is the 
Way of nature. When you appreciate the power of nature, knowing the rhythm of any 
situation, you will be able to hit the enemy naturally and strike naturally. All this is the Way 
of the Void. I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the book of 
the Void. 

The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school-Two swords) 

Warriors, both commanders and troopers, carry two swords^^ at their belt. In olden times 
these were called the long sword and the sword; nowadays they are known as the sword 
and the companion sword. Let it suffice to say that in our land, whatever the reason, a 
warrior carries two swords at his belt. It is the Way of the warrior. 

"Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantage of using both swords. 

The spear and halberd" are weapons that are carried out of doors. 

Students of the Ichi school Way of strategy should train from the start with the 
sword and long sword in either hand. This is the truth: when you sacrifice your life, you 
must make fullest use of your weaponry. It is false not to do so, and to die with a weapon 
yet undrawn. 

2'' Two swords: The samurai wore two swords thrust through the belt with the cutting edges upward on the left side. The 
shorter, or companion, sword was carried at all times, and the longer sword worn only out of doors. From time to time 
there were rules governing the style and length of swords. Samurai carried two swords but other classes were allowed 
only one sword for protection against brigands on the roads between towns (see Translator's Introduction). The samurai 
kept their swords at their bedsides, and there were racks for long swords inside the vestibule of every samurai home. 
28 Spear and halberd: The techniques for spear and halberd fighting are the same as those of sword fighting. Spears 
were first popular in the Muromachi period, primarily as arms for the vast armies of common infantry, and later became 
objects of decoration for the processions of the daimyo to and from the capital in the Tokugawa period. The spear is 
used to cut and thrust, and is not thrown. 

The halberd and similar weapons with long curved blades were especially effective against cavalry, and came to be used 
by women who might have to defend their homes in the absence of menfolk. The art is widely studied by women today. 

If you hold a sword with both hands, it is difficult to wield it freely to left and right, 
so my method is to carry the sword in one hand. This does not apply to large weapons 
such as the spear or halberd, but swords and companion swords can be carried in one 
hand. It is encumbering to hold a sword in both hands when you are on horseback, when 
running on uneven roads, on swampy ground, muddy rice fields, stony ground, or in a 
crowd of people. To hold the long sword in both hands is not the true Way, for if you carry 
a bow or spear or other arms in your left hand you have only one hand free for the long 
sword. However, when it is difficult to cut an enemy down with one hand, you must use 
both hands. It is not difficult to wield a sword in one hand; the Way to learn this is to train 
with two long swords, one in each hand. It will seem difficult at first, but everything is 
difficult at first. Bows are difficult to draw, halberds are difficult to wield; as you become 
accustomed to the bow so your pull will become stronger. When you become used to 
wielding the long sword, you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well. 

As I will explain in the second book, the Water Book, there is no fast way of 
wielding the long sword. The long sword should be wielded broadly, and the companion 
sword closely. This is the first thing to realise. 

According to this Ichi school, you can win with a long weapon, and yet you can 
also win with a short weapon. In short, the Way of the Ichi school is the spirit of winning, 
whatever the weapon and whatever its size. 

It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a crowd and 
especially if you want to take a prisoner. 

These things cannot be explained in detail. From one thing, know ten thousand 
things. When you attain the Way of strategy there will not be one thing you cannot see. 
You must study hard. 

The Benefit of the Two Characters Reading "Strategy" 

Masters of the long sword are called strategists. As for the other military arts, those who 
master the bow are called archers, those who master the spear are called spearmen, 
those who master the gun^^ are called marksmen, those who master the halberd are 
called halberdiers. But we do not call masters of the Way of the long sword 
"longswordsmen", nor do we speak of "companionswordsmen". Because bows, guns, 
spears and halberds are all warriors' equipment they are certainly part of strategy. To 
master the virtue of the long sword is to govern the world and oneself, thus the long sword 
is the basis of strategy. The principle is "strategy by means of the long sword". If he 
attains the virtue of the long sword, one man can beat ten men. Just as one man can beat 
ten, so a hundred men can beat a thousand, and a thousand men can beat ten thousand. 
In my strategy, one man is the same as ten thousand, so this strategy is the complete 
warrior's craft. 

The Way of the warrior does not include other Ways, such as Confucianism, 
Buddhism, certain traditions, artistic accomplishments and dancing.'" But even though 
these are not part of the Way, if you know the Way broadly you will see it in everything. 
Men must polish their particular Way. 

29 The gun: The Japanese gun was matchlock, the form in which it was first introduced into the country by missionaries. 
The matchlocl< remained until the nineteenth century. 

3° Dancing: There are various kinds of dancing. There are festival dances, such as the harvest dance, which incorporate 
local characteristics and are very colorful, sometimes involving many people. There is Noh theatre, which is enacted by a 
few performers using stylized dance-movements. There are also dances of fan and dances of sword. 

The Benefit of Weapons in Strategy 

There is a time and a place for use of weapons. 

The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space, or when you are 
engaged closely with an opponent. The long sword can be used effectively in all 

The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. With the spear you can take 
the initiative; the halberd is defensive. In the hands of one of two men of equal ability, the 
spear gives a little extra strength. Spear and halberd both have their uses, but neither is 
very beneficial in confined spaces. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner. They are 
essentially weapons for the field. 

Anyway, if you learn "indoor" techniques,^^ you will think narrowly and forget the 
true Way. Thus you will have difficulty in actual encounters. 

The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle, especially battles on a 
moor, as it is possible to shoot quickly from among the spearmen. However, it is 
unsatisfactory in sieges, or when the enemy is more than forty yards away. For this 
reason there are nowadays few traditional schools of archery. There is little use nowadays 
for this kind of skill. 

From inside fortifications, the gun has no equal among weapons. It is the supreme 
weapon on the field before the ranks clash, but once swords are crossed the gun 
becomes useless. 

One of the virtues of the bow is that you can see the arrows in flight and correct 
your aim accordingly, whereas gunshot cannot be seen. You must appreciate the 
importance of this. 

Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects, so it is with weapons. 
Horses should walk strongly, and swords and companion swords should cut strongly. 
Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy use: bows and guns must be sturdy. 
Weapons should be hardy rather than decorative. 

You should not have a favourite weapon. To become over-familiar with one 
weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well. You should not copy others, 
but use weapons which you can handle properly. It is bad for commanders and troops to 
have likes and dislikes. These are things you must learn thoroughly. 

Timing in Strategy 

There is timing in everything. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered without a great deal 
of practice. 

Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music, for they are in rhythm only 
if timing is good. Timing and rhythm are also involved in the military arts, shooting bows 
and guns, and riding horses. In all skills and abilities there is timing. 

There is also timing in the Void. 

There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his thriving and declining, in his 
harmony and discord. Similarly, there is timing in the Way of the merchant, in the rise and 
fall of capital. All things entail rising and falling timing. You must be able to discern this. In 
strategy there are various timing considerations. From the outset you must know the 
applicable timing and the inapplicable timing, and from among the large and small things 
and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing, first seeing the distance timing and 

31 Indoor techniques: Dojos were mostly where a great deal of formality and ritual was observed, safe from the prying 
eyes of rival schools. 

the background timing. This is the main thing in strategy. It is especially important to know 
the background timing, otherwise your strategy will become uncertain. 

You win in battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cunning by 
knowing the enemies' timing, and this using a timing which the enemy does not expect. 

All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. You must train sufficiently to 
appreciate all this. 

If you practise day and night in the above Ichi school strategy, your spirit will 
naturally broaden. Thus is large scale strategy and the strategy of hand to hand combat 
propagated in the world. This is recorded for the first time in the five books of Ground, 
Water, Fire, Tradition (Wind), and Void. This is the Way for men who want to learn my 

Do not think dishonestly. 

The Way is in training. 

Become aquainted with every art. 

Know the Ways of all professions. 

Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters. 

Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything. 

Perceive those things which cannot be seen. 

Pay attention even to trifles. 

Do nothing which is of no use. 

It is important to start by setting these broad principles in your heart, and train in the Way 
of strategy. If you do not look at things on a large scale it will be difficult for you to master 
strategy. If you learn and attain this strategy you will never lose even to twenty or thirty 
enemies. More than anything to start with you must set your heart on strategy and 
earnestly stick to the Way. You will come to be able to actually beat men in fights, and to 
be able to win with your eye. Also by training you will be able to freely control your own 
body, conquer men with your body, and with sufficient training you will be able to beat ten 
men with your spirit. When you have reached this point, will it not mean that you are 

Moreover, in large scale strategy the superior man will manage many subordinates 
dextrously, bear himself correctly, govern the country and foster the people, thus 
preserving the ruler's discipline. If there is a Way involving the spirit of not being defeated, 
to help oneself and gain honour, it is the Way of strategy. 

The second year of Shoho (1645), the fifth month, the twelfth day. 

Teruo Magonojo'' SHINMEN MUSASHI 

■ Teruo Magonojo: The pupil, sometimes called Teruo Nobuyuki, to whom Musashi addressed Go Rin No Sho. 

The Water Book 

The spirit of the Ni Ten Ichi school of strategy is based on water, and this Water Book 
explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the Ichi school. Language does not 
extend to explaining the Way in detail, but it can be grasped intuitively. Study this book; 
read a word then ponder on it. If you interpret the meaning loosely you will mistake the 

The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single combat, but you 
must think broadly so that you attain an understanding for ten-thousand-a-side battles. 

Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way even a little 
you will become bewildered and fall into bad ways. 

If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of strategy. Absorb the 
things written in this book. Do not just read, memorise or imitate, but so that you realise 
the principle from within your own heart study hard to absorb these things into your body. 

Spiritual Bearing in Strategy 

In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from normal. Both in fighting 
and in everyday life you should be determined though calm. Meet the situation without 
tenseness yet not recklessly, your spirit settled yet unbiased. Even when your spirit is 
calm do not let your body relax, and when your body is relaxed do not let your spirit 
slacken. Do not let your spirit be influenced by your body, or your body influenced by your 
spirit. Be neither insufficiently spirited nor over spirited. An elevated spirit is weak and a 
low spirit is weak. Do not let the enemy see your spirit. 

Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large people, and large 
people must be familiar with the spirit of small people. Whatever your size, do not be 
misled by the reactions of your own body. With your spirit open and unconstricted, look at 
things from a high point of view. You must cultivate your wisdom and spirit. Polish your 
wisdom: learn public justice, distinguish between good and evil, study the Ways of 
different arts one by one. When you cannot be deceived by men you will have realised the 
wisdom of strategy. 

The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. On the battlefield, even when 
you are hard-pressed, you should ceaselessly research the principles of strategy so that 
you can develop a steady spirit. 

Stance in Strategy 

Adopt a stance with the head erect, neither hanging down, nor looking up, nor twisted. 
Your forehead and the space between your eyes should not be wrinkled. Do not roll your 

eyes nor allow them to blink, but slightly narrow them. With your features composed, keep 
the line of your nose straight with a feeling of slightly flaring your nostrils. Hold the line of 
the rear of the neck straight: instil vigour into your hairline, and in the same way from the 
shoulders down through your entire body. Lower both shoulders and, without the buttocks 
jutting out, put strength into your legs from the knees to the tops of your toes. Brace your 
abdomen so that you do not bend at the hips. Wedge your companion sword in your belt 
against your abdomen, so that your belt is not slack — this is called "wedging in". 

In all forms of strategy, it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in everyday 
life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance. You must research this well. 

The Gaze in Strategy 

The gaze should be large and broad. This is the twofold gaze "Perception and Sight". 
Perception is strong and sight weak. 

In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a 
distanced view of close things. It is important in strategy to know the enemy's sword and 
not to be distracted by insignificant movements of his sword. You must study this. The 
gaze is the same for single combat and for large-scale combat. 

It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without moving the 
eyeballs. You cannot master this ability quickly. Learn what is written here: use this gaze 
in everyday life and do not vary it whatever happens. 

Holding the Long Sword 

Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and forefinger, with the 
middle finger neither tight nor slack, and with the last two fingers tight. It is bad to have 
play in your hands. 

When you take up a sword, you must feel intent on cutting the enemy. As you cut 
an enemy you must not change your grip, and your hands must not "cower". When you 
dash the enemy's sword aside, or ward it off, or force it down, you must slightly change 
the feeling in your thumb and forefinger. Above all, you must be intent on cutting the 
enemy in the way you grip the sword. 

The grip for combat and for sword-testing^^ is the same. There is no such thing as 
a "man-cutting grip". 

Generally, I dislike fixedness in both long swords and hands. Fixedness means a 
dead hand. Pliability is a living hand. You must bear this in mind. 


With the tips of your toes somewhat floating, tread firmly with your heels. Whether you 
move fast or slow, with large or small steps, your feet must always move as in normal 

33 Sword Testing: Swords were tested by highly specialised professional testers. The sword would be fitted into a special 
mounting and test cuts made on bodies, bundles of straw, armour, sheets of metal, etc. Sometimes, appraisal marks of a 
sword testing inscribed on the tangs of old blades are found. 

3'* Footwork: Different methods of moving are used in different schools. Yin-Yang, or "In-Yo" in Japanese, is female-male, 
dark-light, right-left. Musashi advocates this "level mind" kind of walking, although he is emphatic about the significance 
of these parameters -issues of right and left foot arise in the Wind book of Go Rin No Sho. Old Jujitsu schools advocate 
making the first attack with the left side forward. 

walking. I dislike the three walking methods known as "jumping-foot", "floating-foot" and 

So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important to the Way. Yin-Yang foot means not 
moving only one foot. It means moving your feet left-right and right-left when cutting, 
withdrawing, or warding off a cut. You should not move one foot preferentially. 

The Five Attitudes 

The five attitudes are: Upper, Middle, Lower, Right Side, and Left Side. These are the five. 
Although attitude has these five dimensions, the one purpose of all of them is to cut the 
enemy. There are none but these five attitudes. 

Whatever attitude you are in, do not be conscious of making the attitude; think only 
of cutting. 

Your attitude should be large or small according to the situation. Upper, Lower and 
Middle attitudes are decisive. Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Left and Right 
attitudes should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. The decision to 
use Left or Right depends on the place. 

The essence of the Way is this. To understand attitude you must thoroughly 
understand the Middle attitude. The Middle attitude is the heart of the attitudes. If we look 
at strategy on a broad scale, the Middle attitude is the seat of the commander, with the 
other four attitudes following the commander. You must appreciate this. 

The Way of the Long Sword 

Knowing the Way of the long sword^'' means we can wield with two fingers the sword that 
we usually carry. If we know the path of the sword well, we can wield it easily. 

If you try to wield the long sword quickly you will mistake the Way. To wield the 
long sword well you must wield it calmly. If you try to wield it quickly, like a folding fan"'' or 
a short sword, you will err by using "short sword chopping". You cannot cut a man with a 
long sword using this method. 

When you have cut downwards with the long sword, lift it straight upwards, when 
you cut sideways, return the sword along a sideways path. Return the sword in a 
reasonable way, always stretching the elbows broadly. Wield the sword strongly. This is 
the Way of the long sword. 

If you learn to use the five approaches of my strategy, you will be able to wield a 
sword well. You must train constantly. 

The Five Approaches^ '' 

• The first approach is the Middle attitude. Confront the enemy with the point of your 
sword against his face. When he attacks, dash his sword to the right and "ride" it. 

35 The Way of the Long Sword: The Way as a way of life, and as the natural path of a sword blade. There is a natural 
movement of the sword associated with a natural behavior according to Kendo ethics. 

36 Folding fan: An item carried by men and women in the hot summer months. Armoured officers sometimes carried an 
iron war fan. 

3'' Tfie Five Approacfies: Who can understand Musashi's methods? It is necessary to study traditional schools and basic 
cutting practice. Bear in mind that fighting technique may start from a greater distance than it seems to at a first glance. It 
is said that the man who has faced death at the point of a sword has an elevated understanding. 

Or, when the enemy attacks, deflect the point of his sword by hitting downwards, 
keep your long sword where it is, and as the enemy renews the attack cut his arms 
from below. This is the first method. 

The five approaches are this kind of thing. You must train repeatedly using a 
long sword in order to learn them. When you master my Way of the long sword, you 
will be able to control any attack the enemy makes. I assure you, there are no 
attitudes other than the five attitudes of the long sword of NiTo. 

• In the second approach with the long sword, from the Upper attitude cut the enemy 
just as he attacks. If the enemy evades the cut, keep your sword where it is and, 
scooping from below, cut him as he renews the attack. It is possible to repeat the 
cut from here. 

In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. You will be able 
to understand this by training in the Ichi school. You will always win with the five 
long sword methods. You must train repeatedly. 

• In the third approach, adopt the Lower attitude, anticipating scooping up. When the 
enemy attackes, hit his hands from below. As you do so, he may try to hit your 
sword down. If this is the case, cut his upper arm(s) horizontally with a feeling of 
"crossing". This means that from the Lower attitudes you hit the enemy at the instant 
that he attacks. 

You will encounter this method often, both as a beginner and in later 
strategy. You must train holding a long sword. 

• In this fourth approach, adopt the Left Side attitude. As the enemy attacks, hit his 
hands from below. If as you hit his hands he attempts to dash down your sword, 
with the feeling of hitting his hands, parry the path of his long sword and cut across 
from above your shoulder. 

This is the Way of the long sword. Through this method you win by parrying 
the line of the enemy's attack. You must study this. 

• In the fifth approach, the sword is in the Right Side attitude. In accordance with the 
enemy's attack, cross your sword from below at the side to the Upper attitude. Then 
cut straight from above. 

This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well. If you 
can use this method, you can freely wield a heavy long sword. 

I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches. You must become well 
acquainted with my "in harmony with the long sword" Way, learn large-scale timing, 
understand the enemy's long sword, and become used to the five approaches from the 
outset. You will always win by using these five methods, with various timing 
considerations discerning the enemy's spirit. You must consider all this carefully. 

The "Attitude-No-Attitude" Teaching 

"Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are known as long sword 

Even so, attitudes exist as the five ways of holding the long sword. However you 
hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to cut the enemy well, in 
accordance with the situation, the place, and your relation to the enemy. From the Upper 
attitude as your spirit lessens you can adopt the Middle attitude, and from the Middle 
attitude you can raise the sword a little in your technique and adopt the Upper attitude. 

From the Lower attitude you can raise the sword a little and adopt the Middle attitudes as 
the occasion demands. According to the situation, if you turn your sword from either the 
Left Side or Right Side attitude towards the centre, the Middle or the Lower attitude 

The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude — Non-existing Attitude". 

The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your intention to cut the 
enemy, whatever the means. Whenever you parry, hit, spring, strike or touch the enemy's 
cutting sword, you must cut the enemy in the same movement. It is essential to attain this. 
If you think only of hitting, springing, striking or touching the enemy, you will not be able 
actually to cut him. More than anything, you must be thinking of carrying your movement 
through to cutting him. You must thoroughly research this. 

Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". Such attitudes are all 
for winning battles. Fixed formation is bad. Study this well. 

To Hit the Enemy "In One Timing" 

"In One Timing" means, when you have closed with the enemy, to hit him as quickly and 
directly as possible, without moving your body or settling your spirit, while you see that he 
is still undecided. The timing of hitting before the enemy decides to withdraw, break or hit, 
is this "In One Timing". 

You must train to achieve this timing, to be able to hit in the timing of an instant. 

The "Abdomen Timing of Two" 

When you attack and the enemy quickly retreats, as you see him tense you must feint a 
cut. Then, as he relaxes, follow up and hit him. This is the "Abdomen Timing of Two". 

It is very difficult to attain this merely by reading this book, but you will soon 
understand with a little instruction. 

No Design, No Conception ^^ 

In this method, when the enemy attacks and you decide to attack, hit with your body, and 
hit with your spirit, and hit from the Void with your hands, accelerating strongly. This is the 
"No Design, No Conception" cut. 

This is the most important method of hitting. It is often used. You must train hard to 
understand it. 

The Flowing Water Cut 

The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to blade with the enemy. 
When he breaks and quickly withdraws trying to spring with his long sword, expand your 
body and spirit and cut him as slowly as possible with your long sword, following your 
body like stagnant water. You can cut with certainty if you learn this. You must discern the 
enemy's grade. 

38 No Design, No Conception: "Munen Muso"-this means the ability to act calmly and naturally even in the face of 
danger. It is the highest accord with existance, when a man's word and his actions are spontaneously the same. 

Continuous Cut 

When you attack and the enemy also attacks, and your swords spring together, in one 
action cut his head, hands and legs. When you cut several places with one sweep of the 
long sword, it is the "Continuous Cut". You must practise this cut; it is often used. With 
detailed practice you should be able to understand it. 

The Fire and Stones Cut 

The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long sword and your long sword 
clash together you cut as strongly as possible without raising the sword even a little. This 
means cutting quickly with the hands, body and legs — all three cutting strongly. If you train 
well enough you will be able to strike strongly. 

The Red Leaves Cut 

The Red Leaves Cut^^ means knocking down the enemy's long sword. The spirit should 
be getting control of his sword. When the enemy is in a long sword attitude in front of you 
and intent on cutting, hitting and parrying, you strongly hit the enemy's sword with the Fire 
and Stones Cut, perhaps in the design of the "No Design, No Conception" Cut. If you then 
beat down the point of his sword with a sticky feeling, he will necessarily drop the sword. If 
you practise this cut it becomes easy to make the enemy drop his sword. You must train 

The Body in Place of the Long Sword 

Also "the long sword in place of the body". Usually we move the body and the sword at 
the same time to cut the enemy. However, according to the enemy's cutting method, you 
can dash against him with your body first, and afterwards cut with the sword. If his body is 
immoveable, you can cut first with the long sword, but generally you hit first with the body 
and then cut with the long sword. You must research this well and practise hitting. 

Cut and Slash 

To cut and slash are two different things. Cutting, whatever form of cutting it is, is decisive, 
with a resolute spirit. Slashing is nothing more than touching the enemy. Even if you slash 
strongly, and even if the enemy dies instantly, it is slashing. When you cut, your spirit is 
resolved. You must appreciate this. If you first slash the enemy's hands or legs, you must 
then cut strongly. Slashing is in spirit the same as touching. When you realise this, they 
become indistinguishable. Learn this well. 

Chinese Monkey's Body 

^^ Red Leaves Cut Presumably Musashi is alluding here to falling, dying leaves. 

The Chinese Monkey's Body"*" is the spirit of not stretching out your arms. The spirit is to 
get in quickly, without in the least extending your arms, before the enemy cuts. If you are 
intent upon not stretching out your arms you are effectively far away, the spirit is to go in 
with your whole body. When you come to within arm's reach it becomes easy to move 
your body in. You must research this well. 

Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body 


The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the enemy and not separate from 
him. When you approach the enemy, stick firmly with your head, body and legs. People tend to 
advance their head and legs quickly, but their body lags behind. You should stick firmly so that 
there is not the slightest gap between the enemy's body and your body. You must consider this 

To Strive for Height 

By "to strive for height" is meant, when you close with the enemy, to strive with him for 
superior height without cringing. Stretch your legs, stretch your hips, and stretch your neck 
face to face with him. When you think you have won, and you are the higher, thrust in 
strongly. You must learn this. 

To Apply Stickiness 

When the enemy attacks and you also attack with the long sword, you should go in with a 
sticky feeling and fix your long sword against the enemy's as you receive his cut. The 
spirit of stickiness is not hitting very strongly, but hitting so that the long swords do not 
separate easily. It is best to approach as calmly as possible when hitting the enemy's long 
sword with stickiness. The difference between "Stickiness" and "Entanglement" is that 
stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. You must appreciate this. 

The Body Strike 

The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his guard. The spirit is to 
strike him with your body. Turn your face a little aside and strike the enemy's breast with 
your left shoulder thrust out. Approach with a spirit of bouncing the enemy away, striking 
as strongly as possible in time with your breathing. If you achieve this method of closing 
with the enemy, you will be able to knock him ten or twenty feet away. It is possible to 
strike the enemy until he is dead. Train well. 

Three Ways to Parry His Attack 

There are three methods to parry a cut: 

First, by dashing the enemy's long sword to your right, as if thrusting at his eyes. 

'"' Chinese Monkey"s Body: A Chinese monkey here means a short-armed monkey. 

''I Glue and lacquer emulsion: The lacquer work which takes its name from Japan, used to coat furniture and home 

utensils, architecture, weapons and armour. 

when he makes an attack. 

Or, to parry by thrusting the enemy's long sword towards his right eye with the 
feeling of snipping his neck. 

Or, when you have a short "long sword", without worrying about parrying the 
enemy's long sword, to close with him quickly, thrusting at his face with your left hand. 

These are the three ways of parrying. You must bear in mind that you can always 
clench your left hand and thrust at the enemy's face with your fist. For this it is necessary 
to train well. 

To Stab at the Face 

To stab at the face means, when you are in confrontation with the enemy, that your spirit 
is intent on stabbing at his face, following the line of the blades with the point of your long 
sword. If you are intent on stabbling at his face, his face and body will become rideable. 
When the enemy becomes rideable, there are various opportunities for winning. You must 
concentrate on this. When fighting and the enemy's body becomes as if rideable, you can 
win quickly, so you ought not to forget to stab at the face. You must persue the value of 
this technique through training. 

To Stab at the Heart 

To stab at the heart means, when fighting and there are obstructions above or to the 
sides, and whenever it is difficult to cut, to thrust at the enemy. You must stab the enemy's 
breast without letting the point of your long sword waver, showing the enemy the ridge of 
the blade square-on, and with the spirit of deflecting his long sword. The spirit of this 
principle is often useful when we become tired or for some reason our long sword will not 
cut. You must understand the application of this method. 

To Scold "Tut-TUT!" 

"Scold" means that, when the enemy tries to counter-cut as you attack, you counter-cut 
again from below as if thrusting at him, trying to hold him down. With very quick timing you 
cut, scolding the enemy. Thrust up, "Tut!", and cut "TUT!" This timing is encountered time 
and time again in exchanges of blows. The way to scold Tut-TUT is to time the cut 
simultaneously with raising your long sword as if to thrust the enemy. You must learn this 
through repetitive practice. 

The Smacking Parry 

By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the enemy, you meet his 
attacking cut on your long sword with a tee-dum, tee-dum rhythm, smacking his sword 
and cutting him. The spirit of the smacking parry is not parrying, or smacking strongly, but 
smacking the enemy's long sword in accordance with his attacking cut, primarily intent on 
quickly cutting him. If you understand the timing of smacking, however hard your long 
swords clash together, your swordpoint will not be knocked back even a little. You must 
research sufficiently to realise this. 

There are Many Enemies 

"There are many enemies'"*^ applies when you are fighting one against many. Draw both 
sword and companion sword and assume a wide-stretched left and right attitude. The 
spirit is to chase the enemies around from side to side, even though they come from all 
four directions. Observe their attacking order, and go to meet first those who attack first. 
Sweep your eyes around broadly, carefully examining the attacking order, and cut left and 
right alternately with your swords. Waiting is bad. Always quickly reassume your attitudes 
to both sides, cut the enemies down as they advance, crushing them in the direction from 
which they attack. Whatever you do, you must drive the enemy together, as if tying a line 
of fishes, and when they are seen to be piled up, cut them down strongly without giving 
them room to move. 

The Advantage When Coming to Blows 

You can know how to win through strategy with the long sword, but it cannot be clearly 
explained in writing. You must practise diligently in order to understand how to win. 
Oral tradition:*^'The true Way of strategy is revealed in the long sword." 

One Cut 

You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut".^* It is difficult to attain this if you do 
not learn strategy well. If you train well in this Way, strategy will come from your heart and 
you will be able to win at will. You must train diligently. 

Direct Communication 

The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the NiTo Ichi school is 
received and handed down. 

Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy." 

Recorded in the above book is an outline of Ichi school sword fighting. 

To learn how to win with the long sword in strategy, first learn the five approaches 
and the five attitudes, and absorb the Way of the long sword naturally in your body. You 
must understand spirit and timing, handle the long sword naturally, and move body and 
legs in harmony with your spirit. Whether beating one man or two, you will then know 
values in strategy. 

Study the contents of this book, taking one item at a time, and through fighting with 
enemies you will gradually come to know the principle of the Way. 

''^ There are many enemies: Musashi is held to be the inventor of the Two Sword style. His school is sometimes called 
"Nito Ryu" (two sword school) and sometimes "Niten Ryu" (two heavens school). He writes that the use of two swords is 
for when there are many enemies, but people practise a style of fencing with a sword in each hand to give practical 
advantage in fencing. Musashi used the words "two swords" when meaning to use all one's resources in combat. He 
never used two swords when up against a skilled swordsman. 

'•^ Oral tradition: Other Kendo schools also have oral traditions as opposed to teachings passed on in formal technique. 
'♦'' One cut Whatever this means, it is wothwhile to note the "Hitotsu Gachi" (One Victory), the Kiri Otoshi technique of the 
Itto Ryu school, where one cut provides attack and defence, cutting down the enemy's sword and spirit, and the related 
"Itchi no Tachi" (Long Sword of One) of the Shinto style. 

Deliberately, with a patient spirit, absorb the virtue of all this, from time to time 
raising your hand in combat. Maintain this spirit whenever you cross swords with an 

Step by step walk the thousand-mile road. 

Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior. Today is victory 
over yourself of yesterday; tomorrow is your victory over lesser men. Next, in order to beat 
more skilful men, train according to this book, not allowing your heart to be swayed along 
a side-track. Even if you kill an enemy, if it is not based on what you have learned it is not 
the true Way. 

If you attain this Way of victory, then you will be able to beat several tens of men. 
What remains is sword-fighting ability, which you can attain in battles and duels. 

The Second Year of Shoho, the twelfth day of the fifth month (1645) 


The Fire Book 

In this the Fire Book of the NiTo Ichi school of strategy I describe fighting as fire. 

In the first place, people think narrowly about the benefit of strategy. By using only 
their fingertips, they only know the benefit of three of the five inches of the wrist. They let a 
contest be decided, as with the folding fan, merely by the span of their forearms. They 
specialise in the small matter of dexterity, learning such trifles as hand and leg 
movements with the bamboo practise sword. ^^ 

In my strategy, the training for killing enemies is by way of many contests, fighting 
for survival, discovering the meaning of life and death, learning the Way of the sword, 
judging the strength of attacks and understanding the Way of the "edge and ridge" of the 

You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armor is worn.*' My 
Way of strategy is the sure method to win when fighting for your life one man against five 
or ten. There is nothing wrong with the principle "one man can beat ten, so a thousand 
men can beat ten thousand". You must research this. Of course you cannot assemble a 
thousand or ten thousand men for everyday training. But you can become a master of 
strategy by training alone with a sword, so that you can understand the enemy's 
strategies, his strength and resources, and come to appreciate how to apply strategy to 
beat ten thousand enemies. 

Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must research 
diligently, training morning and evening. Thus can he polish his skill, become free from 
self, and realise extrordinary ability. He will come to posess miraculous power. 

This is the practical result of strategy. 

Depending on the Place 

Examine your environment 

Stand in the sun; that is, take up an attitude with the sun behind you. If the 
situation does not allow this, you must try to keep the sun on your right side. In buildings, 
you must stand with the entrance behind you or to your right. Make sure that your rear is 
unobstructed, and that there is free space on your left, your right side being occupied with 
your sword attitude. At night, if the enemy can be seen, keep the fire behind you and the 
entrance to your right, and otherwise take up your attitude as above. You must look down 
on the enemy, and take up your attitude on slightly higher places. For example, the 

"♦s Bamboo practice sword: There have been practise swords of various l<inds throughout the history of Kendo: some are 
made of spliced bamboo covered with cloth or hide. 

^ Full armour: The words "Roku Gu" (six pieces) are used. This is a set of armour consisting of Cuiras, gauntlets, 
sleeves, apron and thigh pieces, or, according to another convention, body armour, helmet, mask, thigh pieces, gauntlets 
and leg pieces. 

Kamiza'*^ in a house is thought of as a high place. 

When the fight comes, always endeavour to chase the enemy around to your left 
side. Chase him towards awkward places, and try to keep him with his back to awkward 
places. When the enemy gets into an inconvenient position, do not let him look around, 
but conscientiously chase him around and pin him down. In houses, chase the enemy into 
the thresholds, lintels, doors, verandas, pillars, and so on, again not letting him see his 

Always chase the enemy into bad footholds, obstacles at the side, and so on, 
using the virtues of the place to establish predominant positions from which to fight. You 
must research and train diligently in this. 

The Three Methods to Forestall the Enemy 


The first is to forestall him by attacking. This is called Ken No Sen (to set him up). 

Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. This is called Tai No Sen (to wait 
for the initiative). 

The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. This is called Tai 
Tai No Sen (to accompany him and forestall him). 

There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. Because you can 
win quickly by taking the lead, it is one of the most important things in strategy. There are 
several things involved in taking the lead. You must make the best of the situation, see 
through the enemy's spirit so that you grasp his strategy and defeat him. It is impossible to 
write about this in detail. 

The First-Ken No Sen 

When you decide to attack, keep calm and dash in quickly, forestalling the enemy. Or you 
can advance seemingly strongly but with a reserved spirit, forestalling him with the 

Alternately, advance with as strong a spirit as possible, and when you reach the 
enemy move with your feet a little quicker than normal, unsettling him and overwhelming 
him sharply. 

Or, with your spirit calm, attack with a feeling of constantly crushing the enemy, 
from first to last. The spirit is to win in the depths of the enemy. 

These are all Ken No Sen. 

The Second-Tai No Sen 

When the enemy attacks, remain undisturbed but feign weakness. As the enemy reaches 
you, suddenly move away indicating that you intend to jump aside, then dash in attacking 
strongly as soon as you see the enemy relax. This is one way. 

'''' Kazima: This is the residence of the ancestral spirit of a house; the head of the house sits nearest this place. It is often 
a slightly raised recess in a wall, sometimes containing a hanging scroll, armour, or other religious property. 
't* The three methods to forestall an enemy: A great swordsman or other artist will have mastered the ability to forestall 
the enemy. The great swordsman is always "before" his environment. This does not mean speed. You cannot beat a 
good swordsman, because he subconsciously sees the origin of every real action. One can still see in Kendo practice 
wonderful old gentlemen slowly hitting young champoins on the head almost casually. It is the practiced ability to sum up 
a changing situation instantly. 

Or, as the enemy attacks, attack more strongly, taking advantage of the resulting 
disorder in his timing to win. 

This is the Tai No Sen principle. 

The Third-Tai Tai No Sen 

When the enemy makes a quick attack, you must attack strongly and calmly, aim for his 
weak point as he draws near, and strongly defeat him. 

Or, if the enemy attacks calmly, you must observe his movement and, with your 
body rather floating, join in with his movements as he draws near. Move quickly and cut 
him strongly. 

This is Tai Tai No Sen 

These things cannot be clearly explained in words. You must research what is written 
here. In these three ways of forestalling, you must judge the situation. This does not mean 
that you always attack first; but if the enemy attacks first you can lead him around. In 
strategy, you have effectively won when you forestall the enemy, so you must train well to 
attain this. 

To Hold Down a Pillow 

"To Hold Down a Pillow"^^ means not allowing the enemy's head to rise. 

In contests of stategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. You must always be 
able to lead the enemy about. Obviously the enemy will also be thinking of doing this, but 
he cannot forestall you if you do not allow him to come out. In strategy, you must stop the 
enemy as he attempts to cut; you must push down his thrust, and throw off his hold when 
he tries to grapple. This is the meaning of "to hold down a pillow". When you have 
grasped this principle, whatever the enemy tries to bring about in the fight you will see in 
advance and suppress it. The spirit is to check his attack at the syllable "at . . .", when he 
jumps check his advance at the syllable "ju . . .", and check his cut at "cu . . .". 

The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful actions but allow 
his useless actions. However, doing this alone is defensive. First, you must act according 
to the Way, suppress the enemy's techniques, foiling his plans, and thence command him 
directly. When you can do this you will be a master of strategy. You must train well and 
research "holding down a pillow". 

Crossing at a Ford 

"Crossing at a ford" means, for example, crossing the sea at a strait, or crossing over a 
hundred miles of broad sea at a crossing place. I believe this "crossing at a ford" occurs 
often in a man's lifetime. It means setting sail even though your friends stay in harbour, 
knowing the route, knowing the soundness of your ship and the favour of the day. When 
all the conditions are met, and there is perhaps a favourable wind, or a tailwind, then set 
sail. If the wind changes within a few miles of your destination, you must row across the 
remaining distance without sail. 

''^ To hold down a pillow: Note that samurai and Japanese ladies slept with heads on a small wooden pillow shaped to 
accommodate their hairstyle. 

If you attain this spirit, it applies to everyday life. You must always think of crossing 
at a ford. 

In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford". Discern the enemy's capability 
and, knowing your own strong points, "cross the ford" at the advantageous place, as a 
good captain crosses a sea route. If you succeed in crossing at the best place, you may 
take your ease. To cross at a ford means to attack the enemy's weak point, and to put 
yourself in an advantageous position. This is how to win in large-scale strategy. The spirit 
of crossing at a ford is necessary in both large — and small-scale strategy. 

You must research this well. 

To Know the Times 

"To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle. Is it flourishing or 
waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men and getting the best position, you can 
work out the enemy's disposition and move your men accordingly. You can win through 
this principle of strategy, fighting from a position of advantage. 

When in a duel, you must forestall the enemy and attack when you have first 
recognised his school of strategy, perceived his quality and his strong and weak points. 
Attack in an unsuspected manner, knowing his metre and modulation and the appropriate 

Knowing the times means, if your ability is high, seeing right into things. If you are 
thoroughly conversant with strategy, you will recognise the enemy's intentions and thus 
have many opportunities to win. You must sufficiently study this. 

To Tread Down the Sword 

"To tread down the sword" is a principle often used in strategy. First, in large-scale 
strategy, when the enemy first discharges bows and guns and then attacks, it is difficult 
for us to attack if we are busy loading powder into our guns or notching our arrows. The 
spirit is to attack quickly while the enemy is still shooting with bows or guns. The spirit is to 
win by "treading down" as we receive the enemy's attack. 

In single combat, we cannot get a decisive victory by cutting, with a "tee-dum tee- 
dum" feeling, in the wake of the enemy's attacking long sword. We must defeat him at the 
start of his attack, in the spirit of treading him down with the feet, so that he cannot rise 
again to the attack. 

"Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. Tread with the body, tread 
with the spirit, and, of course, tread and cut with the long sword. You must achieve the 
spirit of not allowing the enemy to attack a second time. This is the spirit of forestalling in 
every sense. Once at the enemy, you should not aspire just to strike him, but to cling after 
the attack. You must study this deeply. 

To Know "Collapse" 

Everything can collapse. Houses, bodies, and enemies collapse when their rhythm 
becomes deranged. 

In large-scale strategy, when the enemy starts to collapse you must persue him 
without letting the chance go. If you fail to take advantage of your enemies' collapse, they 
may recover. 

In single combat, the enemy sometimes loses timing and collapses. If you let this 
opportunity pass, he may recover and not be so negligent thereafter. Fix your eye on the 
enemy's collapse, and chase him, attacking so that you do not let him recover. You must 
do this. The chasing attack is with a strong spirit. You must utterly cut the enemy down so 
that he does not recover his position. You must understand utterly how to cut down the 

To Become the Enemy 

"To become the enemy" means to think yourself into the enemy's position. In the world 
people tend to think of a robber trapped in a house as a fortified enemy. However, if we 
think of "becoming the enemy", we feel that the whole world is against us and that there is 
no escape. He who is shut inside is a pheasant. He who enters to arrest is a hawk. You 
must appreciate this. 

In large-scale strategy, people are always under the impression that the enemy is 
strong, and so tend to become cautious. But if you have good soldiers, and if you 
understand the principles of strategy, and if you know how to beat the enemy, there is 
nothing to worry about. 

In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. If you think, 
"Here is a master of the Way, who knows the principles of strategy", then you will surely 
lose. You must consider this deeply. 

To Release Four Hands 

"To release four hands"^° is used when you and the enemy are contending with the same 
spirit, and the issue cannot be decided. Abandon this spirit and win through an alternative 

In large-scale strategy, when there is a "four hands" spirit, do not give up — it is 
man's existence. Immediately throw away this spirit and win with a technique the enemy 
does not expect. 

In single combat also, when we think we have fallen into the "four hands" situation, 
we must defeat the enemy by changing our mind and applying a suitable technique 
according to his condition. You must be able to judge this. 

To Move the Shade 

"To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit. 

In large-scale strategy, when you cannot see the enemy's position, indicate that 
you are about to attack strongly, to discover his resources. It is easy then to defeat him 
with a different method once you see his resources. 

In single combat, if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the long sword so 
that you cannot see his intention, make a feint attack, and the enemy will show his long 
sword, thinking he sees your spirit. Benefiting from what you are shown, you can win with 

5" To release four harids: "Yotsu te o hanasu"-the expression "Yotsu te" means the condition of grappling witti botti 
arms engaged with the opponent's arms, or "deadlocl<". It is also the name used to describe various articles with four 
corners joined, such as a fishing net, and was given to an article of ladies' clothing which consisted of a square of cloth 
tied from the back over each shoulder and under each arm, with a knot on the breast. 

certainty. If you are negligent you will miss the timing. Research this well. 

To Hold Down a Shadow 

"Holding down a shadow" is used when you can see the enemy's attacking spirit. 

In large-scale strategy, when the enemy embarks on an attack, if you make a 
show of strongly suppressing his technique, he will change his mind. Then, altering your 
spirit, defeat him by forestalling him with a Void spirit. 

Or, in single combat, hold down the enemy's strong intention with a suitable timing, 
and defeat him by forestalling him with this timing. You must study this well. 

To Pass On 

Many things are said to be passed on. Sleepiness can be passed on, and yawning can be 
passed on. Time can be passed on also. 

In large-scale strategy, when the enemy is agitated and shows an inclination to 
rush, do not mind in the least. Make a show of complete calmness, and the enemy will be 
taken by this and will become relaxed. When you see that this spirit has been passed on, 
you can bring about the enemy's defeat by attacking strongly with a Void spirit. 

In single combat, you can win by relaxing your body and spirit and then, catching 
on the moment the enemy relaxes, attack strongly and quickly, forestalling him. 

What is known as "getting someone drunk" is similar to this. You can also infect 
the enemy with a bored, careless, or weak spirit. You must study this well. 

To Cause Loss of Balance 

Many things can cause a loss of balance. One cause is danger, another is hardship, and 
another is surprise. You must research this. 

In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. Attack without 
warning where the enemy is not expecting it, and while his spirit is undecided follow up 
your advantage and, having the lead, defeat him. 

Or, in single combat, start by making a show of being slow, then suddenly attack 
strongly. Without allowing him space for breath to recover from the fluctuation of spirit, you 
must grasp the opportunity to win. Get the feel of this. 

To Frighten 

Fright often occurs, caused by the unexpected. 

In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not by what you present to their 
eyes, but by shouting, making a small force seem large, or by threatening them from the 
flank without warning. These things all frighten. You can win by making best use of the 
enemy's frightened rhythm. 

In single combat, also, you must use the advantage of taking the enemy unawares 
by frightening him with your body, long sword, or voice, to defeat him. You should 
research this well. 

To Soak In 

When you have come to grips and are striving together with the enemy, and you realise 
that you cannot advance, you "soak in" and become one with the enemy. You can win by 
applying a suitable technique while you are mutually entangled. 

In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small numbers, you can 
often win decisively with the advantage of knowing how to "soak" into the enemy, 
whereas, were you to draw apart, you would lose the chance to win. Research this well. 

To Injure the Corners 

It is difficult to move strong things by pushing directly, so you should "injure the corners". 

In large-scale strategy, it is beneficial to strike at the corners of the enemy's force. 
If the corners are overthrown, the spirit of the whole body will be overthrown. To defeat 
the enemy you must follow up the attack when the corners have fallen. 

In single combat, it is easy to win once the enemy collapses. This happens when 
you injure the "corners" of his body, and this weaken him. It is important to know how to 
do this, so you must research this deeply. 

To Throw into Confusion 

This means making the enemy lose resolve. 

In large-scale strategy we can use your troops to confuse the enemy on the field. 
Observing the enemy's spirit, we can make him think, "Here? There? Like that? Like this? 
Slow? Fast?" Victory is certain when the enemy is caught up in a rhythm that confuses his 

In single combat, we can confuse the enemy by attacking with varied techniques 
when the chance arises. Feint a thrust or cut, or make the enemy think you are going 
close to him, and when he is confused you can easily win. 

This is the essence of fighting, and you must research it deeply. 

The Three Shouts 

The three shouts are divided thus: before, during and after. Shout according to the 
situation. The voice is a thing of life. We shout against fires and so on, against the wind 
and the waves. The voice shows energy. 

In large-scale strategy, at the start of battle we shout as loudly as possible. During 
the fight, the voice is low-pitched, shouting out as we attack. After the contest, we shout in 
the wake of our victory. These are the three shouts. 

In single combat, we make as if to cut and shout "Ei!" at the same time to disturb 
the enemy, then in the wake of our shout we cut with the long sword. We shout after we 
have cut down the enemy — this is to announce victory. This is called "sen go no koe" 
(before and after voice). We do not shout simultaneously with flourishing the long sword. 
We shout during the fight to get into rhythm. Research this deeply. 

To Mingle 

In battles, when the armies are in confrontation, attack the enemy's strong points and, 
when you see that they are beaten back, quickly separate and attack yet another strong 
point on the periphery of his force. The spirit of this is like a winding mountain path. 

This is an important fighting method for one man against many. Strike down the 
enemies in one quarter, or drive them back, then grasp the timing and attack further 
strong points to right and left, as if on a winding mountain path, weighing up the enemies' 
disposition. When you know the enemies' level, attack strongly with no trace of retreating 

In single combat, too, use this spirit with the enemy's strong points. 

What is meant by 'mingling' is the spirit of advancing and becoming engaged with 
the enemy, and not withdrawing even one step. You must understand this. 

To Crush 

This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak. 

In large-scale strategy, when we see that the enemy has few men, or if he has 
many men but his spirit is weak and disordered, we knock the hat over his eyes, crushing 
him utterly. If we crush lightly, he may recover. You must learn the spirit of crushing as if 
with a hand-grip. 

In single combat, if the enemy is less skilful than yourself, if his rhythm is 
disorganized, or if he has fallen into evasive or retreating attitudes, we must crush him 
straightaway, with no concern for his presence and without allowing him space for breath. 
It is essential to crush him all at once. The primary thing is not to let him recover his 
position even a little. You must research this deeply. 

The Mountain-Sea Change 

The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing several times 
when fighting the enemy. There may be no help but to do something twice, but do not try it 
a third time. If you once make an attack and fail, there is little chance of success if you use 
the same approach again. If you attempt a technique which you have previously tried 
unsucessfully and fail yet again, then you must change your attacking method. 

If the enemy thinks of the mountains, attack like the sea; and if he thinks of the 
sea, attack like the mountains. You must research this deeply. 

To Penetrate the Depths 

When we are fighting with the enemy, even when it can be seen that we can win on the 
surface with the benefit of the Way, if his spirit is not extinguished, he may be beaten 
superficially yet undefeated in spirit deep inside. With this principle of "penetrating the 
depths" we can destroy the enemy's spirit in its depths, demoralising him by quickly 
changing our spirit. This often occurs. 

Penetrating the depths means penetrating with the long sword, penetrating with 
the body, and penetrating with the spirit. This cannot be understood in a generalisation. 

Once we have crushed the enemy in the depths, there is no need to remain 
spirited. But otherwise we must remain spirited. If the enemy remains spirited it is difficult 
to crush him. You must train in penetrating the depths for large-scale strategy and also 
single combat. 

To Renew 

"To renew" applies when we are fighting with the enemy, and an entangled spirit arises 
where there is no possible resolution. We must abandon our efforts, think of the situation 
in a fresh spirit then win in the new rhythm. To renew, when we are deadlocked with the 
enemy, means that without changing our circumstance we change our spirit and win 
through a different technique. 

It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale strategy. 
Research this diligently. 

Rat's Head, Ox's Neck 

"Rat's head and ox's neck" means that, when we are fighting with the enemy and both he 
and we have become occupied with small points in an entangled spirit, we must always 
think of the Way of strategy as being both a rat's head and an ox's neck. Whenever we 
have become preoccupied with small details, we must suddenly change into a large spirit, 
interchanging large with small. 

This is one of the essences of strategy. It is necessary that the warrior think in this 
spirit in everyday life. You must not depart from this spirit in large-scale strategy nor in 
single combat. 

The Commander Knows the Troops 

"The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in my Way of strategy. 

Using the wisdom of strategy, think of the enemy as your own troops. When you 
think in this way you can move him at will and be able to chase him around. You become 
the general and the enemy becomes your troops. You must master this. 

To Let Go the Hilt 

There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. 

There is the spirit of winning without a sword. There is also the spirit of holding the 
long sword but not winning. The various methods cannot be expressed in writing. You 
must train well. 

The Body of a Rock ^^ 

When you have mastered the Way of strategy you can suddenly make your body like a 
rock, and ten thousand things cannot touch you. This is the body of a rock. 

You will not be moved. Oral tradition. 

What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about Ichi school 
sword fencing, written down as it came to me. This is the first time I have written about my 

51 The body of tfie rock: This is recorded in the Terao Ka Ki, the chronicle of the house of Terao. Once, a lord asked 
Musashi "What is this 'Body of a rock'?" Musashi replied, "Please summon my pupil Terao Ryuma Suke". When Terao 
appeared, Musashi ordered him to kill himself by cutting his abdomen. Just as Terao was about to make the cut, Musashi 
restrained him and said to the lord, "This is the 'Body of the Rock'". 

technique, and the order of things is a bit confused. It is difficult to express it clearly. 

This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the Way. 

My heart has been inclined to the Way of strategy from my youth onwards. I have 
devoted myself to training my hand, tempering my body, and attaining the many spiritual 
attitudes of sword fencing. If we watch men of other schools discussing theory, and 
concentrating on techniques with the hands, even though they seem skilful to watch, they 
have not the slightest true spirit. 

Of course, men who study in this way think they are training the body and spirit, 
but it is an obstacle to the true Way, and its bad influence remains for ever. Thus the true 
Way of strategy is becoming decadent and dying out. 

The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a fight, and 
nothing other than this. If you attain and adhere to the wisdom of my strategy, you need 
never doubt that you will win. 

The second year of Shoho, the fifth month, the twelfth day (1645) 


The Wind Book 

In strategy you must know the Ways of other schools, so I have written about various 
other traditions of strategy in this the Wind Book. 

Without knowledge of the Ways of other schools, it is difficult to understand the 
essence of my Ichi school. Looking at other schools we find some that specialise in 
techniques of strength using extra-long swords. Some schools study the Way of the short 
sword, known as kodachi. Some schools teach dexterity in large numbers of sword 
techniques, teaching attitudes of the sword as the "surface" and the Way as the "interior". 

That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of this book — all 
the vices and virtues and rights and wrongs. My Ichi school is different. Other schools 
make accomplishments their means of livelihood, growing flowers and decoratively 
colouring articles in order to sell them. This is definately not the Way of strategy. 

Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword fencing, and limit 
their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the body. But is dexterity alone 
sufficient to win? This is not the essence of the Way. 

I have recorded the unsatisfactory points of other schools one by one in this book. 
You must study these matters deeply to appreciate the benefit of my Ni To Ichi school. 

Other Schools Using Extra-Long Swords 

Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. From the point of view of my 
strategy these must be seen as weak schools. This is because they do not appreciate the 
principle of cutting the enemy by any means. Their preference is for the extra-long sword 
and, relying on the virtue of its length, they think to defeat the enemy from a distance. 

In this world it is said, "One inch gives the hand advantage", but these are the idle 
words of one who does not know strategy. It shows the inferior strategy of a weak sprit 
that men should be dependant on the length of their sword, fighting from a distance 
without the benefit of strategy. 

I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long swords as part 
of it's doctrine, but if we compare this with real life it is unreasonable. Surely we need not 
necessarily be defeated if we are using a short sword, and have no long sword? 

It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters because of 
the length of the long sword. The blade path is large so the long sword is an 
encumbrance, and they are at a disadvantage compared to the man armed with a short 
companion sword. 

From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together." So do not 
unconditionally dislike extra-long swords. What I dislike is the inclination towards the long 
sword. If we consider large-scale strategy, we can think of large forces in terms of long 
swords, and small forces as short swords. Cannot few men give battle against many? 

There are many instances of few men overcoming many. 

Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined space your 
heart is inclined to the long sword, or if you are in a house armed only with your 
companion sword. Besides, some men have not the strength of others. 

In my doctrine, I dislike preconceived, narrow spirit. You must study this well. 

The Strong Long Sword Spirit in Other Schools 

You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. If you just wield the long sword in 
a strong spirit your cutting will become coarse, and if you use the sword coarsely you will 
have difficulty in winning. 

If you are concerned with the strength of your sword, you will try to cut 
unreasonably strongly, and will not be able to cut at all. It is also bad to try to cut strongly 
when testing the sword. Whenever you cross swords with an enemy you must not think of 
cutting him either strongly or weakly; just think of cutting and killing him. Be intent solely 
on killing the enemy. Do not try to cut strongly and, of course, do not think of cutting 
weakly. You should only be concerned with killing the enemy. 

If you rely on strength, when you hit the enemy's sword you will inevitably hit too 
hard. If you do this, your own sword will be carried along as a result. Thus the saying, 
"The strongest hand wins", has no meaning. 

In large-scale strategy, if you have a strong army and are relying on strength to 
win, but the enemy also has a strong army, the battle will be fierce. This is the same for 
both sides. 

Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. 

The spirit of my school is to win through the wisdom of strategy, paying no 
attention to trifles. Study this well. 

Use of the Shorter Long Sword in Other Schools 

Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win. 

In ancient times, tachi and katana meant long and short swords. Men of superior 
strength in the world can wield even a long sword lightly, so there is no case for their liking 
the short sword. They also make use of the length of spears and halberds. Some men use 
a shorter long sword with the intention of jumping in and stabbing the enemy at the 
unguarded moment when he flourishes his sword. This inclination is bad. 

To aim for the enemy's unguarded moment is completely defensive, and 
undesirable at close quarters with the enemy. Furthermore, you cannot use the method of 
jumping inside his defense with a short sword if there are many enemies. Some men think 
that if they go against many enemies with a shorter long sword they can unrestrictedly 
frisk around cutting in sweeps, but they have to parry cuts continuously, and eventually 
become entangled with the enemy. This is inconsistant with the true Way of strategy. 

The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in a confusing manner, 
causing him to jump aside, with your body held strongly and straight. The same principle 
applies to large-scale strategy. The essence of strategy is to fall upon the enemy in large 
numbers and to bring about his speedy downfall. By their study of strategy, people of the 
world get used to countering, evading and retreating as the normal thing. They become 
set in this habit, so can easily be paraded around by the enemy. The Way of strategy is 
straight and true. You must chase the enemy around and make him obey your spirit. 

Other Schools with many Methods of using the Long Sword 

I think it is lield in otiier scliools tliat there are many methods of using the long sword in 
order to gain the admiration of beginners. This is selling the Way. It is a vile spirit in 

The reason for this is that to deliberate over many ways of cutting down a man is 
an error. To start with, killing is not the Way of mankind. Killing is the same for people who 
know about fighting and for those who do not. It is the same for women or children, and 
there are not many different methods. We can speak of different tactics such as stabbing 
and mowing down, but none other than these. 

Anyway, cutting down the enemy is the Way of strategy, and there is no need for 
many refinements of it. 

Even so, according to the place, your long sword may be obstructed above or to 
the sides, so you will need to hold your sword in such manner that it can be used. There 
are five methods in five directions. 

Methods apart from these five — hand twisting, body bending, jumping out, and so 
on, to cut the enemy — are not the true Way of strategy. In order to cut the enemy you 
must not make twisting or bending cuts. This is completely useless. In my strategy, I bear 
my spirit and body straight, and cause the enemy to twist and bend. The necessary spirit 
is to win by attacking the enemy when his spirit is warped. You must study this well. 

Use of Attitudes of the Long Sword in Other Schools 

Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is a mistaken way of 
thinking. What is known in the world as "attitude" applies when there is no enemy. The 
reason is that this has been a precedent since ancient times, that there should be no such 
thing as "This is the modern way to do it" duelling. You must force the enemy into 
inconvenient situations. 

Attitudes are for situations in which you are not to be moved. That is, for 
garrisoning castles, battle array, and so on, showing the spirit of not being moved even by 
a strong assault. In the Way of duelling, however, you must always be intent upon taking 
the lead and attacking. Attitude is the spirit of awaiting an attack. You must appreciate 

In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. Attack where his spirit 
is lax, throw him into confusion, irritate and terrify him. Take advantage of the enemy's 
rhythm when he is unsettled and you can win. 

I dislike the defensive spirit known as "attitude". Therefore, in my Way, there is 
something called "Attitude-No Attitude". 

In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind our strength, 
observing the enemy's numbers, and noting the details of the battlefield. This is at the 
start of the battle. 

The spirit of attacking is completely different from the spirit of being attacked. 
Bearing an attack well, with a strong attitude, and parrying the enemy's attack well, is like 
making a wall of spears and halberds. When you attack the enemy, your spirit must go to 
the extent of pulling the stakes out of a wall and using them as spears and halberds. You 
must examine this well. 

Fixing the Eyes in Other Schools 

Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's long sword. Some 
schools fix the eye on the hands. Some fix the eyes on the face, and some fix the eyes on 
the feet, and so on. If you fix the eyes on these places your spirit can become confused, 
and your strategy thwarted. 

I will explain this in detail. Footballers^^ do not fix their eyes on the ball, but by 
good play on the field they can perform well. When you become accustomed to 
something, you are not limited to the use of your eyes. People such as master musicians 
have the music score in front of their nose, or flourish the sword in several ways when 
they have mastered the Way, but this does not mean that they fix their eyes on these 
things specifically, or that they make pointless movements of the sword. It means that 
they can see naturally. 

In the Way of strategy, when you have fought many times you will easily be able to 
appraise the speed and position of the enemy's sword, and having mastery of the Way 
you will see the weight of his spirit. In strategy, fixing the eyes means gazing at the man's 

In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength. "Perception" and 
"sight" are the two methods of seeing. Perception consists of concentrating strongly on 
the enemy's spirit, observing the condition of the battle field, fixing the gaze strongly, 
seeing the progress of the fight and the changes of advantage. This is the sure way to 

In single combat you must not fix the eyes on details. As I said before, if you fix 
your eyes on details and neglect important things, your spirit will become bewildered, and 
victory will escape you. Research this principle well and train diligently. 

Use of the Feet in Other Schools 

There are various methods of using the feet: floating foot, jumping foot, springing foot, 
treading foot, crow's foot, and such nible walking methods. From the point of view of my 
strategy, these are all unsatisfactory. 

I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the fight. The 
Way must be trod firmly. 

Neither do I like jumping foot, because it encourages the habit of jumping, and a 
jumpy spirit. However much you jump, there is no real justification for it, so jumping is bad. 

Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive. 

Treading foot is a "waiting" method, and I especially dislike it. 

Apart from these, there are various fast walking methods, such as crow's foot, and 
so on. 

Sometimes, however, you may encounter the enemy on marshland, swampy 
ground, river valleys, stony ground, or narrow roads, in which situations you cannot jump 
or move the feet quickly. 

In my strategy, the footwork does not change. I always walk as I usually do in the 
street. You must never lose control of your feet. According to the enemy's rhythm, move 
fast or slowly, adjusting your body not too much and not too little. 

Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. This is because, if you 
attack quickly and thoughtlessly without knowing the enemy's spirit, your rhythm will 
become deranged and you will not be able to win. Or, if you advance too slowly, you will 
not be able to take advantage of the enemy's disorder, the opportunity to win will escape, 
and you will not be able to finish the fight quickly. You must win by seizing upon the 

52 Footballers: Football was a court game in ancient Japan. There is a reference to it in Genji Monogatari. 

enemy's disorder and derangement, and by not according him even a little hope of 
recovery. Practise this well. 

Speed in Other Schools 

Speed is not part of the true Way of strategy. Speed implies that things seem fast or slow, 
according to whether or not they are in rhythm. Whatever the Way, the master of strategy 
does not appear fast. 

Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty miles in a 
day, but this does not mean that they run continuously from morning till night. Unpractised 
runners may seem to have been running all day, but their performance is poor. 

In the Way of dance, accomplished performers can sing while dancing, but when 
beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes busy. The "old pine tree"^^ 
melody beaten on a leather drum is tranquil, but when beginners try this they slow down 
and their spirit becomes busy. Very skilful people can manage a fast rhythm, but it is bad 
to beat hurredly. If you try to beat too quickly you will get out of time. Of course, slowness 
is bad. Really skilful people never get out of time, and are always deliberate, and never 
appear busy. From this example, the principle can be seen. 

What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of strategy. The reason for 
this is that depending on the place, marsh or swamp and so on, it may not be possible to 
move the body and legs together quickly. Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you 
have a long sword in this situation. If you try to cut quickly, as if using a fan or short sword, 
you will not actually cut even a little. You must appreciate this. 

In large-scale strategy also, a fast busy spirit is undesirable. The spirit must be that 
of holding down a pillow, then you will not be even a little late. 

When you opponent is hurrying recklessly, you must act contrarily, and keep calm. 
You must not be influenced by the opponent. Train diligently to attain this spirit. 

"Interior" and "Surface" in Other Schools 

There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy. 

The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret tradition, and 
"interior" and "gate","' but in combat there is no such thing as fighting on the surface, or 
cutting with the interior. When I teach my Way, I first teach by training in techniques which 
are easy for the pupil to understand, a doctrine which is easy to understand. I gradually 
endeavour to explain the deep principle, points which it is hardly possible to comprehend, 
according to the pupil's progress. In any event, because the way to understanding is 
through experience, I do not speak of "interior" and "gate". 

In this world, if you go into the mountains, and decide to go deeper and yet 
deeper, instead you will emerge at the gate. Whatever is the Way, it has an interior, and it 
is sometimes a good thing to point out the gate. In strategy, we cannot say what is 
concealed and what is revealed. 

Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and regulations. 
Perceiving the ability of my pupils, I teach the direct Way, remove the bad influence of 
other schools, and gradually introduce them to the true Way of the warrior. 

53 Old pine tree: "KoMatsu Bushi", an old tune for flute or lyre. 

s'' Gate: A student enrolling in a school would pass through the gate of the Dojo. To enter a teacher's gate means to take 

up a course of study. 

The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit. You must train 

I have tried to record an outline of the strategy of other schools in the above nine sections. 
I could now continue by giving a specific account of these schools one by one, from the 
"gate" to the "interior", but I have intentionally not named the schools or their main points. 
The reason for this is that different branches of schools give different interpretations of the 
doctrines. In as much as men's opinions differ, so there must be differing ideas on the 
same matter. Thus no one man's conception is valid for any school. 

I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. If we look at 
them from an honest viewpoint, we see that people always tend to like long swords or 
short swords, and become concerned with strength in both large and small matters. You 
can see why I do not deal with the "gates" of other schools. 

In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior. There is no 
inner meaning in sword attitudes. You must simply keep your spirit true to realise the 
virtue of strategy. 

Twelfth day of the fifth month, the second year of Shoho (1645) 


The Book of the Void 

The Ni To Ichi Way of strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void. 

What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. It is not included in 
man's knowledge. Of course the void is nothingness. By knowing things that exist, you 
can know that which does not exist. That is the void. 

People in this world look at things mistakenly, and think that what they do not 
understand must be the void. This is not the true void. It is bewilderment. 

In the Way of strategy, also, those who study as warriors think that whatever they 
cannot understand in their craft is the void. This is not the true void. 

To attain the Way of strategy as a warrior you must study fully other martial arts 
and not deviate even a little from the Way of the warrior. With your spirit settled, 
accumulate practice day by day, and hour by hour. Polish the twofold spirit heart and 
mind, and sharpen the twofold gaze perception and sight. When your spirit is not in the 
least clouded, when the clouds of bewilderment clear away, there is the true void. 

Until you realise the true Way, whether in Buddhism or in common sense, you may 
think that things are correct and in order. However, if we look at things objectively, from 
the viewpoint of laws of the world, we see various doctrines departing from the true Way. 
Know well this spirit, and with forthrightness as the foundation and the true spirit as the 
Way. Enact strategy broadly, correctly and openly. 

Then you will come to think of things in a wide sense and, taking the void as the 
Way, you will see the Way as void. 

In the void is virtue, and no evil. Wisdom has existence, principle has existence, 
the Way has existence, spirit is nothingness. 

Twelfth day of the fifth month, second year of Shoho (1645)